Native Village

European Invasion Library

"With the arrival of the conquistadores began the extermination of 90 million natives of South America and destruction of all cultures on this side of the Atlantic. There is nothing to celebrate on [Columbus Day], unless you want to celebrate the death and cultural destruction of the conquest.”
Marta Gordillo, Argentine

Columbus's ships:

**More Viking settlements in North America
Watch the video from the BBC

**"Kill the Indian, Save the Man"
Daniella Zalcman explores the painful history and legacy of Native residential schools and similar institutions across the globe

American INdians and the French-English War

Council rejects Indigenous Peoples' Day

**Indigenous children for sale: The money behind the Sixties Scoop
Canada's Native children were sold (adopted out) by welfare authorities, while the U.S pulled children from reservations and placed them in white families to assimilate them.

**Pictured With Their Past
Survivors of Canada’s ‘Cultural Genocide’ Speak Out

*King Ferdinand's letter to the Taino-Arawak Indians
A letter King Ferdinand sent with Columbus on his second voyage to Haiti.

**How Europeans Brought Sickness to the New World
Can some of the world’s last isolated groups avoid those fates as they make contact in the 21st century?

**Doctrine of Discovery in the Name of Christ
Online video: the history of the Doctrine of Discovery, its effects on Indigenous Peoples today, and how we might start to undo it.

Eric the Red and Leif Ericson
500 years before Christopher Columbus, Eric the Red and his son Leif Ericson explored areas of Greenland and North America.

Louis Jolliet & Jacques Marquette
In the mid-1600s, Jolliet and Marquette explored over 800 miles of the Mississippi River.

Christopher Columbus
Brilliant explorer? Or violent conqueror?

Samuel de Champlain 
Champlain explored much of what is now Canada

Juan Ponce de Leon
Learn about De Leon's journeys to the Caribbean and the Americas.

**Native American Lands and the Supreme Court
The Supreme Court has been instrumental in defining legal rights and obligations pertaining to Indian lands

**The growth of a nation
Interactive map and information of manifest destiny and lands taken over by the U.S. government

**Americas First democracy is from Native Americans
The very concept of democracy is from Native Americans. PERIOD. Europeans did not bring this to us.

*Why Treaties Matter
A virtual exhibit of how the binding treaties between the Dakota and Ojibwe and U.S. affected the lands and lifeways of the Indigenous peoples and still matter today.

**The Settlement of the American West
Students identify how government policy and technology in settling the west impacted Native Americans.

**Report of the John Evans Study Committee
Northwestern Univ. founder John Evans is condemned for “political and moral role” in Sand Creek Massacre

**America's Native Prisoners of War
Aaron Huey's photographs and address about  the poverty and struggles and shocking history of the Lakota People on Pine Ridge.

**Redskin, Tanned Hide
A book of Christian History bound in the flayed skin of an American Indian

**Urban Relocation Project
In the last half of the 20th Century, a government program triggered the largest movement of Indians in American history.

"Columbusing": When White People Think They Discovered Something They Didn't

**Human Zoo
In 1881, a group of Indigenous Peoples were taken from their lands and sent to Europe where they lived–and, in some cases, died–as part of an exhibition.

**Incident at Restigouche
 Film: The Quebec Provincial Police (QPP) raid over salmon fishing on the Restigouche Reserve on June 11 and 20, 1981.

Indian Education Series: Ensuring the BIA Has the Tools Necessary to Improve
Watch the U.S. Senate's oversight  hearing on May 21, 2014

**Big Questions: 1855 Treaty and Treaty Rights
Half hour show on the 1855 Treaty and treaty rights generally.

**Mission US: A Cheyenne Odyssey
Interactive history game, players become Little Fox, a Northern Cheyenne boy whose faces the encroachment of white settlers, railroads, and U.S. military.

**Commodity Foods and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
The Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations

**Dawes Act (1887) and Resource Materials
Approved in 1887, the Dawes Act emphasized severalty, the treatment of Native Americans as individuals rather than as members of tribes.

**Did the Vikings Name America?
Did the name, "America" really originate from "omme-rike", the ancient Norse word for "the remotest land?"

**Native American Holocaust Museum
Documentation, study, and interpretation of Native American Holocaust history

**The Journey of the Mayflower
Take an interactive journey across the Atlantic

**Rethinking the U.S. Constitutional Convention: A Role Play
A role play on the Constitutional Convention

**Journeys West   
Access primary sources to develop an understanding of westward expansion

*Colonel Percy Fawcett
He charted the wilderness of South America, but then disappeared without a trace

*Honor the Treaties
Learn about the history of broken promises

**Into the Unknown
Role-play the famous explorers, Lewis and Clark

**Continuing Encounters
Early European insights into America's Native people

**European Encroachment, Native Resistance
As European invaders moved  westward, they forced Native Americans to relinquish their traditional lands, and with it, their sovereignty.

**Seminole Indian War Map

**The Battle of Tippecanoe
Fast facts about the 1811 battle.

**Why Native Americans fight and die for same US army that slew their ancestors
Watch the deeply moving online video

**Indian Adoption Project
In 1957, the BIA contracts with the Child Welfare League of America for Indian adoption by white families.

**Colonialism Transforms Indian Life

**History of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
From UNESCO (United Nations)

**The Cherokee/Seminole Removal Role Play
Role play on the Cherokee-Seminole removal or Trail of Tears.

American Indians and the French-English War
Audio: Reasons for, and the experiences of American Indian peoples who fought in the French and English War.

**The People Vs. Columbus, et. al.
Role play a trial to determine who is responsible for the deaths of millions of Tainos in Hispaniola in the late 15th century.

**Concerning the Savages
An account of Champlain’s first voyage to New France, or Canada, in 1603.

**A Guide to the War of 1812
From the Library of Congress

**Breaking the Ice
 Canada and the Northwest Passage

**Follow DeSoto's Trail
A detailed map of DeSoto's Southeastern trail from Florida to Arkansas

**American Notes: Travels in America, 1750-1920

Earliest European maps of the Americas 

Vespucci Letter
A letter from Amerigo Vespucci describing his third voyage to America

**Indian Tribes Treaties, 1801-1869
Documents about ratified and unratified treaties with various Indian Tribes, 1801-1869

** Pizarro and the Incas
From the Library of Congress

**44 U.S. Presidents Morphing

*Two Worlds Touch  
Online video: 10-year old boy K'ayum is living as his Lacandon culture but deforestation threats his culture.

**The Popham Colony 
Online video:  Founded in 1607 and abandoned in 1608, the Popham Colony existed in Maine

**Canada apologies for 'failing' Native people
Video: The Canadian government officially apologizes for its treatment of Native at residential schools.

**Quebec City: 400 Years of History
The first permanent French settlement in North American was at a place the Algonquin called Québec.

*Jamestown, Quebec, Santa Fe: Three North American Beginnings
   Commemorates the 400th anniversary of these three lasting settlements founded in North America between 1607-1609

**Rural Communities: Legacy &Change
Learn about the losses experienced by Indian communities

**Where is Vinland?
Where was the idyllic Vinland where Europe first encountered America?

Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus is a symbol, not of a man, but of imperialism.

Guides to Catholic-Related Records for the United States about Native Americans
Includes detailed Boarding School information

**Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938 
Memoirs from the daughter of a slave to a Creek Indian.

**Zoom into Maps
Offers hundreds of historical maps, including European invasion and exploration of the Americas

**French Ontario in the 17th and 18th centuries

Eeyou Istchee: Land of the Cree
The impact of the James Bay Hydroelectric Project,  from the Cree point of view and in their own language.

Between Worlds: Voyagers to Britain 1700-1850
Focuses on the ambiguities of encounters between historic visitors to England and  their British contemporaries.

**Nimham's Indian Company of 1778
Indians who fought in the Revolutionary War

Resolution of Apologies to the Native Peoples
A Congressional effort now in place.

**The Buccaneers of America, 1768
A book containing illustrations and descriptions of "the feats of these raiders as they disrupted shipping on the high seas and terrorized Caribbean settlements."

**The Russian Orthodox Church and Native Alaskans
Incredibly moving human exchanges that took place between the priests of the Russian Orthodox Church in Alaska and Native Alaskans, during the years 1794 to about 1915.

**DeSoto's Midwestern Conquest: Starting Point
Maps of 16th century Spanish conquest trails among Native American villages in 14 States, including Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois

**Roanoke Revisited
An educational journey of Virginia's Lost Colony

**Chiapas Highlands: The Weaver's Tale
Listen to how a young Tzotzil woman is trying to bridge the gap between old and new in the Chiapas highlands.

Raised Voices: Toninho on indigenous peoples
Audio testimonies of people from the Majority World on the impacts the G8 has on their lives and their countries.

Harvest Ceremony: Beyond the Thanksgiving Myth
From the Smithsonian, assists teachers in preparing lessons about the first Thanksgiving

**Exploration & Explorers
     Looks at Europe's view of North America before & after Columbus

**The 1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii
The US overthrow and imposition of the Republic of Hawaii was contrary to the will of the native Hawaiians.

**Allotment Era in Cherokee History
An interactive website about the division of Reservation lands into parcels that could (and were) sold to non-Indians from 1887-1934.

Video clip about the truth of Canada's settlements and treaties.

**The Berger Pipeline Inquiry
Across Canada, native leaders celebrate the Berger  Report as "the best statement on native rights since the Europeans came to Canada."

**Discovery of America by Prince Madog ab Owen Gwynedd, 1170
Account given by Gen. Bowles, Creek or Cherokee Indian, and by members of other tribes

**Pacific Travelers
The Indigenous Pacific islanders who voyaged with Cook

**National NAGPRA Database
Organized documents related to the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act

** Saint Augustine Map, 1589
The oldest item in the State Archives of Florida,
** New World Encounters
American history does not begin with Columbus

** Indian Affairs Head Makes Apology
Remarks of Kevin Gover, Assistant Secretary of Bureau of Indian Affairs

** The Journey of Christopher Columbus: Beyond the Textbook
Information about the 1492-1493 journey headed by Christopher Columbus from Spain to the "new world."

**Realms of Gold: A Catalogue of Maps in the Library of the American Philosophical Society
Nearly 600 page volume is the definitive guide to all maps held at the APS.

Initial point marker
Commemorating the establishment of the boundary between Arkansas Territory and Indian Country

**National Geographic: Lewis & Clark
An interactive log based on the journal entries from the Lewis and Clark expedition.

**Native American Deeds
From Essex County, Massachusetts:a web site of Colonial-era land deals with local tribes

**Colonial Cartography: The Plymouth Company Maps
Indian deeds are represented on some of these maps.

**Sorry Day
Activities to acknowledge the impact of the policies of forcible removal on Australia's indigenous populations.
Video clip focusing on British Columbia's land ownership and economic future.

*Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition Online
Contains several thousands pages of the explorers' journals and superb extra features

*Historic Maps in K-12 Classrooms
Features lessons built around historically important maps including Columbus's world (1482), an Indian map of the Southeast (1721), Captain Cook & Hawaii

*Journal of the H.M.S. Endeavour, 1768 - 1771
Images of James Cook's "journal of the voyage of H.M.S. Endeavour during which Cook discovered Eastern Australia and circumnavigated New Zealand

*Native Americans and Mount Rushmore
The insult of Rushmore to the Sioux

*The General Allotment Act
Congress's Act which divided Native American reservation land into parcels

*Alabama Changes Columbus Day to American Indian Heritage
Read the Proclamation

Chronology of U.S. Military Actions and Wars, 1775 - Present
Map of major battles with American Indians

Ratified Indian Treaties, 1722-1869. M668. 16 rolls. DP.

Canada in the Making
Looks at Canadian these treaties and laws, and the events that preceded and followed these changes.

* First Meetings in the North Pacific
1741: first meeting of Russians with today's Aleut peoples.
*The Viking Deception
Fresh evidence confirming that ta Viking map is ae clever forgery.

The Sullivan-Clinton Campaign: History, the Iroquois, and George Washington
The largest expedition ever before mounted against the American Indians

**Removing Native Americans from their Land 
In 1838, the Cherokee were forced on a 1,000-mile march to the established Indian Territory with few provisions. Approximately 4,000 Cherokees died on this “Trail of Tears.”

**Lewis and Clark, the Unheard Voices
An alternative viewpoint on an often-glorified era, and call attention to the dangers of ethnocentric and one-sided versions of history.

Peru Mestizo: Life and Art in a Colonial Kingdom
The encounter of Francisco Pizarro and the Inca in the Andean highlands of Peru changed everything-forever. (Exceptional images.)

Drake's Attack on St. Augustine
The earliest printed depiction of Sir Francis Drake's 1586 attack on St. Augustine, Fla.

Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties
A compilation of U.S. treaties, laws and executive orders pertaining to Native American Indian tribes.

Records of the Indian Claims Commission
Claims against the United states on behalf of any tribe, band or other identifiable group of American Indians.

We the People
Interviews with Native American teens and adults in New York City indicate the struggle to overcome obstacles created since Christopher Columbus still continues today.

Racism: The Internal Madness
In cities of many cultures, racism is not only a black and white issue.

And The Dish Ran Away With The Spoon
A fascinating documentary from Trinidad and Tobago about the domination of Caribbean television by programs from the North, primarily the US.

Spanish Conquest of Native America
This Site provides a Twenty-first Century glimpse at the oldest written history of America

Hidden from History: The Canadian Holocaust
This report contains nearly 200 Aboriginal testimonies from eyewitness of crimes in church-run residential schools and hospitals across Canada.

River People: Behind the Case of David Sohappy
David Sohappy, a Yakima spiritual leader, was sentenced to a five year prison term for selling 317 salmon out of season. Claiming an ancestral right to fish along the Columbia, Sohappy has openly defied state and federal fishing laws

The Legacy Project
Latin American Repression The last half of the 20th century has seen persistent poverty, political instability and social injustice in many Latin American republics.

A slide show entitled "Hawaii's Road to International Recovery" includes 65 slides about the prolonged occupation of Hawaii from the 19-21st century.

The Ethnography of Lewis and Clark
This online exhibit from Harvard's Peabody Museum explores Native American Objects and the American Quest for Commerce and Science.

Bureau of Indian affairs, 
Information about American Indians and Alaska Natives

Unbidden Voices: We the People 
Stereotypes are often perpetuated and exaggerated through the media. This video analyzes the stereotypes which have evolved specific to America's indigenous peoples, as seen in cartoons, liquor and...

Natives of the Narrowland
The Wampanoags of Cape Cod were among the first to come into contact with European sailing vessels, and hence, among the first to disappear. Cornell University's American Indian Program shows NATIVES OF THE NARROWLAND to their graduate students as part of a lecture entitled Thanksgiving's Children: Myths which Mask the Collapse of the Indigenous Environment.

Over 325 Kansas maps have been put online by Wichita State University. The maps date from 1556 to 1900

A Place Called Chiapas
In 1994, impoverished Mayan Indians from the state of Chiapas, took over 5 towns and 500 ranches in southern Mexico. Filmmaker Nettie Wild traveled to the jungle canyons of southern Mexico to film the elusive and fragile life of the uprising.

8,000 men Navajos forced to make a grueling 300-mile march.
The Long Walk- the 300-mile, forced walk to exile in New Mexico
A complete index of 368 ratified treaties and 17 unratified treatives between Indian Nations and invading governments. 
Treaty Text Files 

8,000 men Navajos forced to make a grueling 300-mile march.
The Long Walk- the 300-mile, forced walk to exile in New Mexico 

Canadian National Museum
The first meetings between Inuit and English, 1576
CMCC - Inuit and Englishmen : The Nunavut voyages of Martin Frobisher

Polynesian Voyaging Society: An exploration of "how Polynesian seafarers discovered and settled nearly every inhabitable island in the Pacific Ocean before European explorers arrived in the 16th century."
Polynesian Voyaging Society

A look at Haitian history from slavery to assembly lines.
Bitter Cane

Trade, migrations, military strength, cultures...Native peoples in Mexico thrived for centuries before Columbus arrived.
The Discover of America. Mesoamerica. History. Mexico for kids 

The Fur Trade Era 

Canada Heirloom Series
Canada--its settlement and conflict with Native Peoples.

While Europeans sailed west to America millions of Russians moved east, settling alongs rivers, coasts and fertile land occupied by Native peoples. 
Meeting of Frontiers

1696 Massachusettes document offering bounties for Indian scalps and prisoners. 
An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera

In 1558, Don Juan de Onate ordered European settlers he had led to El Paso to put on their best clothes for the FIRST Thanksgiving by colonists
First Thanksgiving 1558

French and British invasion of the upper Great Lakes area began in the 1500s.
The History of the Upper Midwest: An Overview

Mt. Shasta in California, the Colorado Plateau in the Southwest, Devils Tower in Wyoming, and the conflicts with American culture vs. these Indian spiritual centers.
 In the Light of Reverance

A documented site of actual trails and campsites used during the Cherokee's forced removal to "Indian Territory." 
Cherokee Trail of Tears Park

Francisco Coronado, Join this Spanish explorer on his quest for the Cities of Gold.
Francisco Coronado 

1774-1830's...recorded history from the fascinating Northwest coast
A history of the NW Coast 

The War of 1812 and the Amerindians involvement. 
Re-living History: The War of 1812

In 1641, The Spanish galleon Nuestra Señora de la Pura y Limpia Concepción struck a shallow reef and sunk near Puerto Rico. Retrace her final journey, walk the decks, and examine the wealth of silver recently discovered in her ruins.
Silver Bank @

The illegal overthrow of the Hawaiian sovereignty in 1893 by the American government.
Act of War: the Overthrow of the Hawaiian Nation

The history of Mexican-American/Chicana women-from the Spanish invasion to the present.  

Adelante Mujeres!

Examines how Native Americans have been "imagined" in the movies and in popular culture.
 Imagining Indians


The 60s Scoop Explained
Watch: The Sixties Scoop happened in Canada from the 1960s to the late '80s and saw 1000's of Indigenous children taken from their parents to be placed with white families.

Signs of Your Identity: Forced Assimilation Education for Indigenous Youth
Examines the legacy of the residential school system while looking forward to a healing future for children brought up speaking their tribal languages and celebrating their cultures.


Federal government denies access to Native American artifacts
"BLM keeps thousands of Native American artifacts off-limits at San Bernardino County Museum"

**Extracts from the journal of Columbus

**Conquest of Hawaii
Watch the film

**Papers of the War Department 1784-1800
Over 42,000 documents, including Indian resolutions, investigations, treaties and more, thought to be lost after a fire at the U.S. War Office in 1800.

Indian Children and the Federal-Tribal Trust Relationship
A short educational video discussing American Indian imagery in La Crosse, WI

**Hernando De Soto
De Soto explored South and Central America looking for treasure while enslaving indigenous tribes for his own use.

Amerigo Vespucci
Vespucci was the first person to realize that the land across the Atlantic was not Asia, but a new continent

René-Robert Cavelier de La Salle
La Salle pioneered French exploration in to the new world

John Cabot, Italian explorer
Five hundred years after the Vikings explored North America, Cabot became the first known European to reach its mainland.

Hernan Cortes
 Cortés ended the Aztec civilization, and his legacy is marred by his brutal treatment of Mexican natives.

Francisco Vázquez de Coronado
His exploration through the American Southwest made him the first European to see the Colorado river and the Grand Canyon.

American Indian Boarding Schools
A list by the NNABSHC

**La Florida Map
This map is the first separately printed one showing the extent of Spanish Florida

**Spaniards Enslaved By Indians

**Bobby C Billie Addresses European Invasion
Bobby C. Billie addresses St. Augustine, Florida's refusal to tell its true history

**Myth Conception Quiz
What are the truths and half truths of the earliest European settlers.

**Fort Ross Conservancy Digital Library
In 1741, Russian explorers "discovered" and claimed the Aleutian Islands and mainland Alaska for themselves. Soon they were in California

**Making Slavery in New France: Indigenous and Atlantic Histories
Between the 1660s and 1760s, the colonists of New France held thousands of American Indians as slaves.

**Waterlines Project Map
A rendering of the Seattle area in the mid-19th century, just prior to non-Native settlement

**The Invasion of America
An interactive timeline of how the US took over an eighth of the world (1,500,000,000 acres) by treaty and executive order.

**Why Treaties Matter
Today, treaties continue to affirm the inherent sovereignty of American Indian nations.

Social and Economic Change on American Indian Reservations
A Databook of the US Censuses and the American Community Survey 1990 – 2010

Progress Report: "Implementation of the Memorandum of Understanding
Interagency Coordination and Collaboration for the Protection of Indian Sacred Sites"
By the Departments of Defense, Interior, Agriculture, Energy, and Advisory Council on Historic Preservation

Legislative Hearing on Indian Trust Asset Reform Act”H.R. 409 and H.R. 4350 
Archived Video Webcast from the May 7, 2014 meeting

Background of Treaty Making in Western Washington
A short article by Barbara Lane,  the lead expert witness in the United States v. Washington trial that led to the Boldt decision.

Native Hawaiians stand up for justice

**Cortés and the Aztecs
From the Library of Congress

**Discovering Columbus
Re-reading the Past

**Using the Great Seal as the Nation Expands
Includes early U.S. peace medals with Native American Tribes

**Indian Yell: The Heart of an American Insurgency
During the 19th century, conflict between Native Americans and American settlers was at an all-time high.

**Rivers, Edens, Empires: Lewis & Clark & the Revealing of America
     Looks at historical maps, relations with Indians, & expedition artifacts

*The German Love Affair with American Indians
By the turn of the twentieth century, thinking about American Indians had become integral to German culture.

500 years ago, the Americas were "new" and Spain's quest for gold, land, and souls destroyed ancient  nations

**Columbus and the Taino
From the Library of Congress

**President Andrew Jackson’s Instructions to the “Civilized” Indian Tribes to Move West
The very letter read in person by the chiefs

**Kit Carson
"Kit" Carson waged a merciless crusade against the Navajo People. Watch online.

**Interpreting the Conquest
From the Library of Congress

**Indian Removal
The American policy of “Manifest Destiny” and Native American resistance to their own displacement.

**Nightmare in Jamestown
Watch the film, free, online!

**Mission Labor
**The real story about what happened in the California missions under Spanish and Mexican rule.

**rediscovering columbus
Re-read the past to discover the other side of Columbus's story about Native peoples.

**Act of Defiance
Online documentary about the  "Mohawk Crisis" of the summer of 1990.

**More Proof That Vikings Were First to America
A Native woman may have traveled from America to Europe 1,000 years ago.

**Secrets of the Dead: The Aztec Massacre
Watch the full episode of the violent relations between the Aztecs and Conquistadors

**Andrew Jackson and the “Children of the Forest”
Develop critical literacy skills by responding to Andrew Jackson’s speech on “Indian Removal.”

**Conflict and Accommodation
From the Library of Congress

**Under These Fields 1000 Years Ago  
Online video: Arizona's Grewe Site and its community covered about two square miles. Roads are now destroying it.

Columbus and Las Casa.
Words from Columbus, de Las Casas, and Eduardo Galeano tell the other half of the story of Columbus and the Arawak people.

**1839-1932 Reports from the U.S. Office of Indian Affairs

Browse the annual reports

**The Ethnography of Lewis and Clark
A virtual exhibit from Harvard University.

**After the Mayflower
From "We Shall Remain", the acclaimed  2009 PBS series
View Episode online:

**Trail of Tears
From "We Shall Remain", the acclaimed 2009 PBS series
View Episode online:

**The First Map of the New World
An interactive quest from the Library of Congress

**The Forts of Old San Juan: Guardians of the Caribbean
A history of Puerto Rico & the forts Spain established to protect its growing population & riches in the Caribbean

Appeals for Justice: Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda
Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda, an Australian Yolngu elder, appealed his murder conviction in Australia's Supreme Court and became a catalyst for change.

**Leif Ericson Viking Ship
Dedicated to Leif Ericson, the first European to set foot upon and explore the North American Continent

** Drake’s West Indian Voyage 1588-1589
Investigate maps depicting a voyage by Sir Francis Drake which involved attacks on Spanish settlements around the Atlantic.

How the Conquest of Indigenous Peoples Parallels the Conquest of Nature
An audio message from Chief John Mohawk

An extraordinary video shows the moment hired gunmen attack a Makuxi Indian village in Brazil.

*THEODORE de BRY's Native American Engraving 
As it was seen and drawn by Le MOYNE in 1560's America

**Lost Bird of Wounded Knee
Four days after the Wounded Knee massacre, Lost Bird was found alive protected byher mother's frozen body.

**Jacques Cartier
The colonization of Canada, Cartier's routes, and his exploration of Newfoundland and the Gaspe Bay.

**The Codigo Brasiliense
Materials relating to Portuguese expansion across the Atlantic for over one hundred and fifty years.

 **Columbus Didn't Discover Us (1992)
Free online documentary. (Registration required)

Video art clip of the conflicts in cultural and political climate

**Native American Citizenship  
The history of American Indian citizenship and U.S. policy concerning Native Americans.

**Historical Statistics of the U.S.
Colonial Times to 1970 as

November, 2004

That Papal document called for Carribean Nations and Peoples to be subjugated so the Christian Empire

*Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson, the first European on North American soil, summarizes the various
   accounts of his journey.

*The People...Native Americans
Native American affected by successive waves of immigrants arrived from other nations

An Exhibit of the Library of Congress, Washington, DC

*1421: The Year China Discovered the World
This site supports the theory that the Chinese circumnavigated and charted the globe the Europeans

*History of Guantanamo Bay
Begins with Columbus' Discovery of the Cuban bay in the Caribbean through 1982

*500 Anos de Brasil
An online exibition

*Jacques Cartier Sailed Up the St. Lawrence River
June 9, 1534

*A Settlement with Unsettling Challenges
The establishment of Jamestown in 1607

*Fill up the Canvas
Follow Lewis and Clark as they meet the Teton Sioux, Nez Perce, and other tribes.

*Raid of Deerfield, Massachusetts
During the Queen Anne's War February 29, 1704

*The Annexation of Hawaii: A Collection of Documents
This large collection includes hand-written letters by Queen Liliuokalani.

*Journeys West"
Examine the motivations of people who traveled west during the 1800s, as well as the conditions they encountered.

*Captured By Indians: Mary Jemison Becomes an Indian

**Memorandum Regarding the Enlistment of Navajo Indians
Photocopy of actual memorandum to enlist Navajos as codetalkers

* Rapa Nui (the big island)
European discovery was by the Dutch navigator Roggeveen on Easter day

* Immigration..Native American: Removal from their Land 
President Andrew Jackson offered reasons why Native Americans should be removed from their lands

* A History of Concession Development in Yellowstone National Park, 1872-
1966 [pdf]

The French and Indian War in Pennsylvania

Making of Lewis and Clark: Great Journey West
Free online documentary. (Registration required)

Topolobampo Collection
Records of the Credit Foncier of Sinaloa Company and its failed utopian colony at Topolobampo Bay, Mexico, in the late 1800s

Disaster at Wounded Knee 
Such violent conflicts were common throughout many territories,

Changing Views of Christopher Columbus
Audio view of Columbus by William Keegan, Florida Museum of Natural History.

Wounded Knee: 25 Years Later, 
Audio about changes in Native American relations since Wounded Knee by Fr. Don Doll, S.J.,

Immigration.. Native American: Losses 
The precarious relationship between U.S. soldiers and Native American hunters..

Native Americans 
Lewis and Clark, Native Americans, and the USGS

Inventing the Indian
A collection of images from Northwest Ohio

Maps of the Pimeria
Early Cartography of the Southwest

European Commission: Support for indigenous people
A brief overview of the European Commission's position on supporting indigenous peoples.

Trust Us
A cartoon satire about the Interior Department's treatment of American Indians

Letter of Cortes to Emperor Charles V (1521)

American Shores
Maps of the Middle Atlantic Region until 1859

Our Native Land 
Broadcast: May 14, 1977 . Across Canada, native leaders celebrated the Berger Report as "the best statement on native rights since the Europeans came to Canada."

 Righting 100 years of wrong. 
Broadcast Nov. 21, 1996. The Royal Commission report polarizes Ottawa with its sweeping recommendations.

The National Council of the Lewis and Clark Bicentennial

Governor's Office of Indian Affairs Washington   State
      Information on tribal treaties, tourism, government relations, and economic development

“Another Race of White Men Come Amongst Us”: Native American Views as British Invade 

“Their Extraordinary Great Labor”: Roger Williams Observes Indian Customs and Language, 1643

J John Ball Visits Hawaii in 1833

“Kill the Indian, and Save the Man”: Capt. Richard C. Pratt on the Education of Native Americans

“Your People Live Only Upon Cod”:
An Algonquian Response to European Claims of Cultural Superiority

"The Iroquois were much astonished that two men should have been killed so quickly”: Samuel de Champlain Introduces Firearms to Native Warfare, 1609
The European Voyages of Exploration
Spain and Portugal: two pioneering nations, their motivations, their actions, and the inevitable consequences of their colonization.

Columbus and Celestial Navigation
Learn how Columbus tried to determine his latitude using celestial navigation on his first voyage across the Atlantic.

Columbus Quest
ColumbusQuest will follow Christopher Columbus' sea route through the Bahamas to Cuba.

Immigration...Native American: Destroying Cultures 
How European Invasion affected the Native cultures.

Voyage of the Endeavor
In 1768, James Cook and the crew of the Endeavor set sail for the South Pacific. Their mission: research effective sea-navigation techniques and seek out the island continent of Australia.

1774 saw a sharp conflict between Virginia and England as to jurisdiction over Indian territory north of the Ohio.

The Indian Boundary Line 
A 1763 paper and map of Indian territory.

Nahua Numbering System
A precise accounting in graphic images and recorded testimony or Huexotzinco products paid as tribute to the Spanish.

Huexotzinco Codex, 1531
Part of the written testimony in a 1531 legal case of the Huexotzinco people and Cortes against representatives of the colonial government in Mexico.

Black Hills Treaty, 1868-document photo
Recognizes the Black Hills of Dakota as part of the Great Sioux Reservation

Columbus's book of Privileges
Authentic copies of Columbus's original documents through which Isabel and Fernando had him granted titles, revenues, powers, and privileges to him and his descendants. T

Cherokee Nation Denied Foreign Nation Status
In 1831, Associate Justice Smith Thompson wrote a dissenting opinion upholding the claims of the Cherokee Nation as a foreign Nation.

Samuel de Champlain's 1607 Map

Native Youth on the Indian Act and Assimilation 
This radio episode was produced by youth from Native Friendship Center of Montreal.

CKUT's Long Term Memory Radio 
A 4-part series on Canada's Relationship with Native North America

New Spain
The Frontiers of Faith (Exceptional images.)

Crossroads of Empire
Printed maps of Texas and the southwest beginning in 1513

The Island of California
A 1656 map

Border Studies: Texas/Mexico Border
The study of merging cultures from pre-1700 until today (Exceptional images.)
El Canal de Panama/The Panama Canal -
From the Panama Canal Authority, "the autonomous agency of the Government of Panama in charge of managing, operating, and maintaining the canal."

Juan de Onate's Journey in 1598 (Exceptional images.)

Huexotzinco Codex, 1531
The Huexotzinco Codex is an eight-sheet document on amatl, a pre- European paper made in Mesoameric. It is part of the testimony in a legal case against representatives of the colonial government in Mexico, ten years after the Spanish conquest in 1521.

Columbus's Book of Privileges
Top Treasures Gallery: American Treasures of the Library of Congress

Unbidden Voices: We the People
Stereotypes are often perpetuated and exaggerated through the media. This video analyzes the stereotypes which have evolved specific to America's indigenous peoples, as seen in cartoons, liquor and...

Europe had nothing like the rattlesnake nor North America anything like the humped camel.
The Columbian Exchange, Plants, Animals,
and Disease between the Old and New Worlds

Concepción de la Vega 
Tucked away in the foothills of the rich Cibao valley of the central Dominican Republic, the ruins of this once large and thriving city arenearly forgotten and rarely visited. Researchers from the University of Florida have been working for the past several years with the Dominican National Park Service to try and change that, by preserving the site's remains and enhancing its presentation to the public.
COLUMBUS'S FORGOTTEN CITY: The Web of Time, issue 12 

Words from Indian slave children.
Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938

Frontier Forts in the American Revolution
TeachersFirst - Frontier Forts 

Native Peoples and Champlain
Without the help of the American Indians, Samuel de Champlain's plans would never have been realized. Exploring the country without the people who already lived in North America and knew the territory with its fauna and flora would have been impossible.    
Time Periods - The Native Peoples and Champlain

In 1838, over 850 Potawatomi Indian people were marched 660 miles at gunpoint from their Indiana homeland. More than 40 died--most of them children. 
Potawatomi Web ­ "Trail of Death" map 

Ancient Mexican civilization was nearly 3,000 years old when Europeans invaded.
Lonely Planet - Mexican pre-colonial history 

Taino ruler Guarionex and his life after European invasion in 1492.
Columbus My Enemy

Travel with Louis and Clark and learn how Native Americans assisted them almost every step of the way.
]Lewis & Clark @ 

The southern O'odham ("Pimas Bajos"), and the northern O'odham (Pimas Altos)helped Father Juan Bautista Velderrain create a desert masterpiece.
Spain in Arizona: San Xavier del Bac, 

The Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute Curriculum Unit:The Indian's Discovery of Europeans
The Indians’ Discovery of Columbus

The Cherokee Trail of Tears 
National Historic Trail/The Trail of Tears 

Examines how Native Americans have been "imagined" in the movies and in popular culture.
 Imagining Indians

Search this historical cartoon website for "Indians" and experience how influential--and harmful-- the media can be.
Political Cartoons and Cartoonists

From the Library of Congress, this exhibition examines the first sustained contacts between American people and European explorers, conquerors and settlers from 1492 to 1600."
Discover the discovery. 
1492 Exhibit

Phoebe Banks, whose family were slaves to Creek Indians, recalls slave days. 
Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938 

Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938 
Story of a Young Indian Boy's Recollections of Slavery.

People there still talk about the 1756 massacre pf Fort Seybert (W.Wa.)by young Delaware Chief Killbuck and his group of Ohio-area warriors.
Both Sides: Images form both sides of World War One. The Web of Time, Issue Two, Fall 1998

Kamchatka was born of fire, like the Earth itself. Learn more about the Russian peoples of this Bering Sea region whose ancestors may be those of many Native Americans.
The Living Edens: Kamchatka

More than 200 years after his death, Junipero Serra is still a pivotal figure in California history and a flashpoint for controversy over European treatment of Indians. 
People in THE WEST - Junipero Serra

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