this month in Native American History
by Phil Konstantin
" - Frog Moon
After being shipwrecked in Texas, Cabeza de Vaca and a few men march across the
continent to California. They will be the first "white men" to visit many Indian
tribes. Today de Vaca reaches "civilization" again at San Miguel in New Galicia.
A 3-day National Conference on Indian Water Rights has convened in Washington,
D.C. Representatives from almost 200 tribes attend the meeting.
White settlers are illegally moving onto Sioux lands near New Ulm, Minnesota.
They petition President Lincoln for protection against the Indians.
Comanche Chief Piava arranges an exchange of 2 prisoners with the residents of
San Antonio. Two captives from each side are released.
After their removal from Illinois to Iowa in 1831, Black Hawk and almost 1000 of
his Sac tribe return home and cross the Mississippi River back into Illinois.
They are attacked the next day.
April 6, 1875:
Black Horse is one of several Southern Cheyenne Indians being sent to prison in
Florida for their uprisings in Indian Territory and Texas. While handcuffed,
Black Horse tries to escape into the the crowd of Indians. He is pursued, and
mortally wounded. Several shots miss Black Horse and hit other Cheyenne. The
Indians attack with bullets and arrows while almost half the group flees the
agency to hide in nearby hills. The U.S. Army pursues them and a fight
ensues. The next day, 11 Indians were found dead. 19 were wounded.
April 7, 1984:
The first meeting between the Eastern and Western Cherokees since the 1800s is
1756: Governor Robert Morris declares war on the Delaware and Shawnee
Indians. As a part of his declaration, he offers issued "The Scalp Act," which
offered bounties on the tribe. The Scalp Act lead to the killing of many
innocent Indians from other tribes.
The Scalp Act Bounty
Men over 12 =
150 Spanish pieces of eight
Women or Boys =
130 Spanish pieces of eight
130 Spanish pieces of eight
Women and Boys =
50 Spanish pieces of eight
1884: A woman identified by missionaries as Sacajawea dies in
Wyoming. If she is the Sacajawea who accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition,
she would be almost 100 years old.
1871: Apaches raid the San Xavier mission south of Tucson and steal
1968: The American Indian Civil Rights Act is passed.
1836: For the last week, a blockhouse 12 miles from the
mouth of the Withlacoochee has been staffed by the Florida militia. Today they
are attacked by up to 1,000 Seminole warriors. The attacks continue for the next
1946: Congress creates the Indian Claims Commission. Its responsibility is
to make decisions on claims made by Indians concerning land losses from
1614: John Rolfe marries Pocahontas.
1879: 30 Apaches escape the Army camp of Ojo Caliente, NM, and eventually
return to Mexico.
1550: Charles V orders a stop to Indian land conquests.
1818: Andrew Jackson sets out for Florida to
fight the Seminoles.
1528: Panfilo de Narvaez has just landed on the western Florida coast.
He claims Florida for Spain.
Ft. Mojave is established to "protect" the area from the Mojave and Paiutes.
1606: Issued today, the first charter of Virginia said
the colonists should try to civilize the natives which" may, in time, bring the
infidels and savages, living in those parts, to human civility."
1869: President Grant appoints Donehogawa, Seneca, as the first Indian to
become Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Donehogawa, (Ely Samuel Parker,) was a
lawyer and civil engineer. He became an aide to Ulysses Grant during the Civil
War and drew up the surrender papers for Lee to sign at Appomattox.
1889: The Oklahoma land rush begins.
1637: Chief Sequin, Wongunk, gave settlers land to establish
the village of Wetherfield on the Connecticut River. The settlers, who promised
he could live there under their protection, eventually ordered him to move.
Today Sequin leads his Wongunk forces and 200 Pequot warriors in an attack on
Weatherfield. They kill 9 settlers and take 2 hostage.
1802: The State of Georgia cedes its western lands to the United States,
with the proviso that the Federal Government obtain the title to Indian lands as
soon as "can be peaceably obtained on reasonable terms."
1541: Coronado leaves Alcanfor en route to Quivira where he will kill many
of the people living in Tiguex Pueblo.
A law is passed granting the U.S. President power to pick the Cherokee Chief.
1877: Tashunkewitko (Crazy Horse) leaves for Fort Robinson,
Nebraska, to surrender to the U.S. Army after General George Crook promises him
his own reservation in the Powder River area. Crazy Horse is killed at
Fort Robinson on September 5.
Remnants of Loco's Chiricahua Apaches are attacked by U.S troops and a company
of Indian scouts near Cloverdale, Arizona. Six Apaches are killed, and 72 head
of livestock are seized. The surviving Indians head toward Mexico.
One of a series of treaties with California Indians is signed at Camp Barbour.
These treaties promise to set aside lands for the Indians and to protect them
1682: La Salle begins a 4-day stay with the Taensa Indians on Lake Saint
Joseph, LA. He will sign a peace treaty with them.
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