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this month in Native American History
by Phil Konstantin
APRIL
"Tabehatawi " - Frog Moon
ASSINIBOINE

  April 1,  1536:  After being shipwrecked in Texas, Cabeza de Vaca and a few men march across the continent to California. They will be the first "white men" to visit many Indian tribes. Today de Vaca reaches "civilization" again at San Miguel in New Galicia.
  April, 1975:  A 3-day National Conference on Indian Water Rights has convened in Washington, D.C. Representatives from almost 200 tribes attend the meeting.
  April 3,  1861:  White settlers are illegally moving onto Sioux lands near New Ulm, Minnesota. They petition President Lincoln for protection against the Indians.
  April 4, 1840:  Comanche Chief Piava arranges an exchange of 2 prisoners with the residents of San Antonio. Two captives from each side are released.
  April 5, 1832:  After their removal from Illinois to Iowa in 1831, Black Hawk and almost 1000 of his Sac tribe return home and cross the Mississippi River back into Illinois. They are attacked the next day.



  April 6, 1875:  Black Horse is one of several Southern Cheyenne Indians being sent to prison in Florida for their uprisings in Indian Territory and Texas. While handcuffed, Black Horse tries to escape into the the crowd of Indians. He is pursued, and mortally wounded. Several shots miss Black Horse and hit other Cheyenne. The Indians attack with bullets and arrows while almost half the group flees the agency to hide in nearby hills.  The U.S. Army pursues them and a fight ensues. The next day, 11 Indians were found dead. 19 were wounded.
  April 7, 1984:  The first meeting between the Eastern and Western Cherokees since the 1800s is held.
  April 8, 1756:  Governor Robert Morris declares war on the Delaware and Shawnee Indians. As a part of his declaration, he offers issued "The Scalp Act," which offered bounties on the tribe.  The Scalp Act lead to the killing of many innocent Indians from other tribes.

The Scalp Act Bounty

Prisoners:
Men over 12 = 150 Spanish pieces of eight
Women or Boys =
130 Spanish pieces of eight

Scalps:
Men = 130 Spanish pieces of eight
Women and Boys  = 
50 Spanish pieces of eight

  April 9, 1884:  A woman identified by missionaries as Sacajawea dies in Wyoming. If she is the Sacajawea who accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition, she would be almost 100 years old.
  April 10, 1871:  Apaches raid the San Xavier mission south of Tucson and steal livestock.
  April 11, 1968: The American Indian Civil Rights Act is passed.
  April 12, 1836:  For the last week, a blockhouse 12 miles from the mouth of the Withlacoochee has been staffed by the Florida militia. Today they are attacked by up to 1,000 Seminole warriors. The attacks continue for the next 2 months.
 

  April 13, 1946:  Congress creates the Indian Claims Commission. Its responsibility is to make decisions on claims made by Indians concerning land losses from treaties.
  April 14, 1614:  John Rolfe marries Pocahontas.
  April 15, 1879:  30 Apaches escape the Army camp of Ojo Caliente, NM, and eventually return to Mexico.
  April 16, 1550:  Charles V orders a stop to Indian land conquests.
  April 17,
     1818:  Andrew Jackson sets out for Florida to fight the Seminoles.
  April 18, 1528:  Panfilo de Narvaez has just landed on the western Florida coast.  He claims Florida for Spain.
  April 19, 1859:  Ft. Mojave is established to "protect" the area from the Mojave and Paiutes.
  April 20,  1606:  Issued today, the first charter of Virginia said the colonists should try to civilize the natives which" may, in time, bring the infidels and savages, living in those parts, to human civility."
  April 21, 1869:  President Grant appoints Donehogawa, Seneca, as the first Indian to become Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Donehogawa, (Ely Samuel Parker,) was a lawyer and civil engineer. He became an aide to Ulysses Grant during the Civil War and drew up the surrender papers for Lee to sign at Appomattox.
  April 22, 1889:  The Oklahoma land rush begins.
  April 23, 1637:  Chief Sequin, Wongunk, gave settlers land to establish the village of Wetherfield on the Connecticut River. The settlers, who promised he could live there under their protection, eventually ordered him to move. Today Sequin leads his Wongunk forces and 200 Pequot warriors in an attack on Weatherfield. They kill 9 settlers and take 2  hostage.
  
  April 2,  1802:  The State of Georgia cedes its western lands to the United States, with the proviso that the Federal Government obtain the title to Indian lands as soon as "can be peaceably obtained on reasonable terms."
 
  April 25, 1541:  Coronado leaves Alcanfor en route to Quivira where he will kill many of the people living in Tiguex Pueblo.
  April 26,1906:  A law is passed granting the U.S. President power to pick the Cherokee Chief.
  April 27, 1877:  Tashunkewitko (Crazy Horse) leaves for Fort Robinson, Nebraska, to surrender to the U.S. Army after General George Crook promises him his own reservation in the Powder River area.  Crazy Horse is killed at Fort Robinson on September 5.

  April 28,1882:  Remnants of Loco's Chiricahua Apaches are attacked by U.S troops and a company of Indian scouts near Cloverdale, Arizona. Six Apaches are killed, and 72 head of livestock are seized. The surviving Indians head toward Mexico.
  April 29,1851:  One of a series of treaties with California Indians is signed at Camp Barbour. These treaties promise to set aside lands for the Indians and to protect them from Americans.
  April 30, 1682:  La Salle begins a 4-day stay with the Taensa Indians on Lake Saint Joseph, LA. He will sign a peace treaty with them.

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