1833: According to an army
report, by this date, the army estimates they have captured all
of the "hostile" Creek Indians, except for the warriors from
Hitchiti, and Yuchi, led by Jim Henry.
July 2, 1791: The treaty (7
stat.39) with the Cherokee Nation is concluded on the Holston
River at White's Fort, modern Knoxville Tennessee. The Cherokee
acknowledge the sovereignty of the United States. Prisoners are
restored on both sides. Boundary lines are officially
established. American citizens are allowed to use a road from
the Washington District, to the Mero District on the Tennessee
River without molestation. The United States will have the sole
right to regulate trade with the Cherokee. No whites can live,
or hunt on Cherokee lands, without Cherokee approval. Annual
payments increase from $1000, to $1500 on February 17, 1792. The
treaty is signed by thirty-nine Chiefs, 1200 other Cherokees
attend the meeting. This is known as the "Holston River Treaty."
The Americans are represented by Governor William Blount.
July 3, 1754: Surrounded by
500 French and 400 Indian forces under Sieur Coulon de Villiers,
George Washington has only 400 soldiers at his Fort Necessity,
near modern Farmington, in southwestern Pennsylvania. After his
artillery is put out of action, and with half of his men as
casualties, Washington accepts de Villiers offer of surrender.
Washington leads his troops back to Virginia. De Villiers is the
brother of Jumonville de Villiers, Washington's counterpart in
the battle not far from here on May 28th. Jumonville is killed
in that battle.
July 4, 1874: Captain A.E.
Bates, and Troop B, Second Cavalry, and 160 "friendly"
Shoshones, are en route from Camp Brown, in west central
Wyoming, looking for a reported gathering of hostile Northern
Cheyenne and Arapahos, when they discover a large group of
"hostiles" on the Bad Water Branch of the Wind River, in
Wyoming. During the battle, twenty-six "hostiles," and four
soldiers are killed. Twenty Indians, and six soldiers, including
Lieutenant R.H. Young, are wounded. 230 horses are captured.
After this fight, many "hostile" Northern Cheyenne and Arapahos
are convinced to return to their agencies to avoid further
July 5, 1873: A tract of land
is set aside as a reserve for "Gross Ventre, Piegan, Blood,
Blackfeet, River Crow and other Indians" in Montana by Executive
July 6, 1465: Palenque Maya
Lord Chaacal I is born according to the museum at Palenque.
July 7, 1666: Robert Sanford
has been exploring the coast of South Carolina for a colony
site. He has found some friendly Indians at Port Royal. Today he
sets sail for Barbados with the nephew of the local Chief. The
Chief wants his nephew to learn the white man's ways and
language. Dr. Henry Woodward stays with the Indians and learn
their ways, thus making him the first European settler in South
Carolina. Woodward eventually becomes the preeminent Indian
agent in South Carolina.
July 8, 1724: French peace
envoy Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont has come from Fort Orleans to
visit the Indians of modern Kansas. At the mouth of the Missouri
River, he encounters the "Canza." Many of them accompany de
Bourgmont on his trip to the "Padoucas."
July 9, 1969: Members of the
Passamaquoddy Nation block road that goes through their
reservation in Maine.
10, 1843: In 1842, the
Wyandot signed a treaty (11 Stat., 581.) giving up their lands
in Ohio for land west of the Mississippi River. Today, 674 men,
women and children start their trip from Ohio to Kansas.
July 11, 1598: Juan de
Oñate’s expedition reaches the San Juan Pueblo in modern New
1784: Even though he has
signed a peace treaty with the Spanish, Tonkawa Chief El Mocho
is planning to join the Texas Indians together under his
leadership and then attack the Spanish. The Spanish hear of El
Mocho's plans. In the Presidio of la Bahia, El Mocho is shot
down in the plaza by Spanish soldiers.
July 13, 1973: New Mexico is
told no State Income Taxes can be levied against reservation
July 14, 1684: Naumkeag
Indian, and son of former Sachem Wenepoykin, James Quannapowit
petitions the English of Marblehead Massachusetts. He complains
they are giving out lands which rightfully belong to him. On
September 16, 1684, a deed is finally signed by all parties in
order for the English to hold "rightful title" to the land.
15, 1877: In the Weippe
Prairie, east of Weippe, Idaho, the Nez Perce hold a council to
decide their movements. The army is still trying to force them
to move to a reservation. They wish to stay free. Looking Glass
says they should go east into Montana and join the crow. Chief
Joseph (Hein-mot Too-ya-la kekt) suggests they wait for the army
here and fight it out in their own lands. Toohoolhoolzote joins
Looking Glass in suggesting they move east into Montana. The
tribe decides to move.
July 16, 1862: Yesterday, as
a small group of mounted soldiers attempt to leave the Apache
Pass watering hole, Mangas, and some warriors, attack. During
the fight, Mangas is shot in the chest. The Indians abandon the
fight, with the loss of their leader. Eventually, Cochise takes
his father-in-law to Mexico, where he holds a town hostage until
a Mexican doctor heals Mangas. This battle leads to the
construction of Fort Bowie on July 28, 1862 according to the
official National Park Service brochure. This is in modern New
July 17, 1853: A dispute
between a settler ad some Paiutes near Springville, Utah leads
to the death of one of the Paiutes. This will lead to what is
sometimes called the "Walker War."
July 18, 1694: Abenaki Chief
Abomazine, almost 300 Penobscot warriors, and few French attack
the settlement along the south side of the Oyster River, at
modern Durham, New Hampshire. The Indians are trying to sneak
into the village when their presence in discovered. Some
settlers escape, others retreat to fortified homes.
104 settlers are killed, and twenty-seven are taken hostage
before the Indians withdraw. Four months later, Abomazine
approaches the fort at Pemaquid, under a white flag. He is
seized by the garrison for his part in the attack.
1856: By this date, all
of the remaining Rogue River Indians are en route to the Grande
Ronde Reservation in Oregon. They number 1225.
1863: General James
Carleton, called "Star Chief" by the Navajos, has ordered the
Navajos to leave their homeland and to report to the Bosque
Redondo Reservation in New Mexico. All Navajos found off the
reservation, after this date, are considered "hostiles," and
will be treated accordingly. No Navajos turn themselves in,
leading to the Canyon de Chelly Campaign, and the "Long Walk."
1855: John W. Quinney,
Stockbridge Chief, dies in Stockbridge, New York. Through his
efforts, his tribe creates a constitutional system for the
election of its here-to-fore hereditary leaders. He is
instrumental in the cessation of the sell of tribal lands to
Europeans. He leads the efforts to have 460 acres of their
former lands returned by the State of New York. He is elected
Chief of the tribe in 1852.
July 22, 1863: As a followup
to the "Owens Valley War" in California, over 900 Paiutes are
led to the San Sebastian Reservation at Fort Tejon (north of Los
July 23, 1733: José de
Urrutia is appointed Captain of San Antonio de Béxar Presidio.
The Spanish acknowledged him as one of their experts on Indians.
July 24, 1863: The Santee
Sioux have engaged in an uprising in Minnesota. Some have fled
the area and made their way into the Dakotas. General Henry
Sibley and troops from Fort Ridgley in Minnesota have pursued
them. According to reports Sibley has received, the Santee have
joined up with the Teton Sioux. Today the soldiers find an
Indian village in what is now North Dakota. According to the
army’s report, while some scouts are talking with a couple of
hundred Indians who come out to meet then, someone shoots and
kills Surgeon Josiah Weiser. The scouts shoot at the Indian who
shot the doctor, but he gets away. More Indians arrive and start
shooting. Then more soldiers arrive and open fire. A full scale
fight takes place and some fighting lasts through early
tomorrow. It is called the "Battle of Big Mound."
July 25, 1863: As part of the
Canyon de Chelly Campaign, Kit Carson decides to force the
Navajos to surrender by destroying their food supply. He orders
Major Joseph Cummings to proceed along the Bonito River, and to
seize all livestock and crops. Anything he cannot haul way, is
July 26, 1865: Following the
massacre at Sand Creek, many Indians begin attacking military
outposts, and people crossing their territory. A group of
Cheyenne, led by Roman Nose, want revenge for lost relatives.
They approached a bridge across the North Platte in what is now
Casper, Wyoming. The bridge is also the site of a telegraph
station and a military outpost. After trying for two days to get
the soldiers out of the fort, a column of troops cross the
bridge. The Indians attack and kill many soldiers, including
Lieutenant Casper Collins. Another column of troops comes to the
rescue, and cannon fire from the fort helps them escape. The
soldiers left the fort to provide an escort for an approaching
wagon train. Another band of Indians attacks the wagon train.
During the fighting, Roman Nose's brother is killed. Roman Nose
lead a charge against the wagon train and all of the soldiers
guarding it are killed. Their anger quickly dissipates, and the
Indians quit the fight, and leave the area.
27, 1777: Jane McCrea is
killed. A painting is made showing her about to be scalped. It
becomes a famous piece of American art.
July 28, 1756: Delaware Chief
Teedyuscung, and fourteen other chiefs, meet with Pennsylvania
Governor Robert Morris, and other Pennsylvania leaders at
Easton, Pennsylvania to discuss the Delaware uprising.
Teedyuscung agrees to visit the warring members of the tribe,
and to try to end the fighting.
July 29, 1868: After years of
conflict over the Bozeman Trail along the Powder River, the War
Department finally gives in to Indian's, and particularly Red
Cloud's, demands and starts abandoning its forts. Fort C.F.
Smith’s garrison packs-up and leaves. The fort is located near
present day Yellowtail and Big Horn Lake, in southern Montana.
July 30, 1829: In internal
documents, the United States War Department formalizes a new
Indian policy. Secretary of War John Eaton believes Indians will
not be able to survive if the live in lands surrounded by white
1684: According to some
sources, a six day conference starts between representatives of
the New York colonies and the Mohawks, Oniedas, Onondagas and
Cayugas. Some lands are ceded and allegiances are pledged.