This Month in Native American History
by Phil Konstantin

 Peaches Moon 
  July 1, 1833: According to an army report, by this date, the army estimates they have captured all of the "hostile" Creek Indians, except for the warriors from Hitchiti, and Yuchi, led by Jim Henry.

   July 2, 1791: The treaty (7 stat.39) with the Cherokee Nation is concluded on the Holston River at White's Fort, modern Knoxville Tennessee. The Cherokee acknowledge the sovereignty of the United States. Prisoners are restored on both sides. Boundary lines are officially established. American citizens are allowed to use a road from the Washington District, to the Mero District on the Tennessee River without molestation. The United States will have the sole right to regulate trade with the Cherokee. No whites can live, or hunt on Cherokee lands, without Cherokee approval. Annual payments increase from $1000, to $1500 on February 17, 1792. The treaty is signed by thirty-nine Chiefs, 1200 other Cherokees attend the meeting. This is known as the "Holston River Treaty." The Americans are represented by Governor William Blount.
 July 3, 1754: Surrounded by 500 French and 400 Indian forces under Sieur Coulon de Villiers, George Washington has only 400 soldiers at his Fort Necessity, near modern Farmington, in southwestern Pennsylvania. After his artillery is put out of action, and with half of his men as casualties, Washington accepts de Villiers offer of surrender. Washington leads his troops back to Virginia. De Villiers is the brother of Jumonville de Villiers, Washington's counterpart in the battle not far from here on May 28th. Jumonville is killed in that battle.

   July 4, 1874: Captain A.E. Bates, and Troop B, Second Cavalry, and 160 "friendly" Shoshones, are en route from Camp Brown, in west central Wyoming, looking for a reported gathering of hostile Northern Cheyenne and Arapahos, when they discover a large group of "hostiles" on the Bad Water Branch of the Wind River, in Wyoming. During the battle, twenty-six "hostiles," and four soldiers are killed. Twenty Indians, and six soldiers, including Lieutenant R.H. Young, are wounded. 230 horses are captured. After this fight, many "hostile" Northern Cheyenne and Arapahos are convinced to return to their agencies to avoid further battles.

   July 5, 1873: A tract of land is set aside as a reserve for "Gross Ventre, Piegan, Blood, Blackfeet, River Crow and other Indians" in Montana by Executive Order.

July 6, 1465: Palenque Maya Lord Chaacal I is born according to the museum at Palenque.

   July 7, 1666: Robert Sanford has been exploring the coast of South Carolina for a colony site. He has found some friendly Indians at Port Royal. Today he sets sail for Barbados with the nephew of the local Chief. The Chief wants his nephew to learn the white man's ways and language. Dr. Henry Woodward stays with the Indians and learn their ways, thus making him the first European settler in South Carolina. Woodward eventually becomes the preeminent Indian agent in South Carolina.

   July 8, 1724: French peace envoy Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont has come from Fort Orleans to visit the Indians of modern Kansas. At the mouth of the Missouri River, he encounters the "Canza." Many of them accompany de Bourgmont on his trip to the "Padoucas."

   July 9, 1969: Members of the Passamaquoddy Nation block road that goes through their reservation in Maine.

   July 10, 1843: In 1842, the Wyandot signed a treaty (11 Stat., 581.) giving up their lands in Ohio for land west of the Mississippi River. Today, 674 men, women and children start their trip from Ohio to Kansas.

   July 11, 1598: Juan de Oñate’s expedition reaches the San Juan Pueblo in modern New Mexico.

July 12, 1784: Even though he has signed a peace treaty with the Spanish, Tonkawa Chief El Mocho is planning to join the Texas Indians together under his leadership and then attack the Spanish. The Spanish hear of El Mocho's plans. In the Presidio of la Bahia, El Mocho is shot down in the plaza by Spanish soldiers.

   July 13, 1973: New Mexico is told no State Income Taxes can be levied against reservation Indians.

   July 14, 1684: Naumkeag Indian, and son of former Sachem Wenepoykin, James Quannapowit petitions the English of Marblehead Massachusetts. He complains they are giving out lands which rightfully belong to him. On September 16, 1684, a deed is finally signed by all parties in order for the English to hold "rightful title" to the land.

July 15, 1877: In the Weippe Prairie, east of Weippe, Idaho, the Nez Perce hold a council to decide their movements. The army is still trying to force them to move to a reservation. They wish to stay free. Looking Glass says they should go east into Montana and join the crow. Chief Joseph (Hein-mot Too-ya-la kekt) suggests they wait for the army here and fight it out in their own lands. Toohoolhoolzote joins Looking Glass in suggesting they move east into Montana. The tribe decides to move.

   July 16, 1862: Yesterday, as a small group of mounted soldiers attempt to leave the Apache Pass watering hole, Mangas, and some warriors, attack. During the fight, Mangas is shot in the chest. The Indians abandon the fight, with the loss of their leader. Eventually, Cochise takes his father-in-law to Mexico, where he holds a town hostage until a Mexican doctor heals Mangas. This battle leads to the construction of Fort Bowie on July 28, 1862 according to the official National Park Service brochure. This is in modern New Mexico.

   July 17, 1853: A dispute between a settler ad some Paiutes near Springville, Utah leads to the death of one of the Paiutes. This will lead to what is sometimes called the "Walker War."

  July 18, 1694: Abenaki Chief Abomazine, almost 300 Penobscot warriors, and few French attack the settlement along the south side of the Oyster River, at modern Durham, New Hampshire. The Indians are trying to sneak into the village when their presence in discovered. Some settlers escape, others retreat to fortified homes. 104 settlers are killed, and twenty-seven are taken hostage before the Indians withdraw. Four months later, Abomazine approaches the fort at Pemaquid, under a white flag. He is seized by the garrison for his part in the attack.

July 19, 1856: By this date, all of the remaining Rogue River Indians are en route to the Grande Ronde Reservation in Oregon. They number 1225.

July 20, 1863: General James Carleton, called "Star Chief" by the Navajos, has ordered the Navajos to leave their homeland and to report to the Bosque Redondo Reservation in New Mexico. All Navajos found off the reservation, after this date, are considered "hostiles," and will be treated accordingly. No Navajos turn themselves in, leading to the Canyon de Chelly Campaign, and the "Long Walk."

July 21, 1855: John W. Quinney, Stockbridge Chief, dies in Stockbridge, New York. Through his efforts, his tribe creates a constitutional system for the election of its here-to-fore hereditary leaders. He is instrumental in the cessation of the sell of tribal lands to Europeans. He leads the efforts to have 460 acres of their former lands returned by the State of New York. He is elected Chief of the tribe in 1852.

   July 22, 1863: As a followup to the "Owens Valley War" in California, over 900 Paiutes are led to the San Sebastian Reservation at Fort Tejon (north of Los Angeles).

   July 23, 1733: José de Urrutia is appointed Captain of San Antonio de Béxar Presidio. The Spanish acknowledged him as one of their experts on Indians.

   July 24, 1863: The Santee Sioux have engaged in an uprising in Minnesota. Some have fled the area and made their way into the Dakotas. General Henry Sibley and troops from Fort Ridgley in Minnesota have pursued them. According to reports Sibley has received, the Santee have joined up with the Teton Sioux. Today the soldiers find an Indian village in what is now North Dakota. According to the army’s report, while some scouts are talking with a couple of hundred Indians who come out to meet then, someone shoots and kills Surgeon Josiah Weiser. The scouts shoot at the Indian who shot the doctor, but he gets away. More Indians arrive and start shooting. Then more soldiers arrive and open fire. A full scale fight takes place and some fighting lasts through early tomorrow. It is called the "Battle of Big Mound."

   July 25, 1863: As part of the Canyon de Chelly Campaign, Kit Carson decides to force the Navajos to surrender by destroying their food supply. He orders Major Joseph Cummings to proceed along the Bonito River, and to seize all livestock and crops. Anything he cannot haul way, is burned.

   July 26, 1865: Following the massacre at Sand Creek, many Indians begin attacking military outposts, and people crossing their territory. A group of Cheyenne, led by Roman Nose, want revenge for lost relatives. They approached a bridge across the North Platte in what is now Casper, Wyoming. The bridge is also the site of a telegraph station and a military outpost. After trying for two days to get the soldiers out of the fort, a column of troops cross the bridge. The Indians attack and kill many soldiers, including Lieutenant Casper Collins. Another column of troops comes to the rescue, and cannon fire from the fort helps them escape. The soldiers left the fort to provide an escort for an approaching wagon train. Another band of Indians attacks the wagon train. During the fighting, Roman Nose's brother is killed. Roman Nose lead a charge against the wagon train and all of the soldiers guarding it are killed. Their anger quickly dissipates, and the Indians quit the fight, and leave the area.

   July 27, 1777: Jane McCrea is killed. A painting is made showing her about to be scalped. It becomes a famous piece of American art.

   July 28, 1756: Delaware Chief Teedyuscung, and fourteen other chiefs, meet with Pennsylvania Governor Robert Morris, and other Pennsylvania leaders at Easton, Pennsylvania to discuss the Delaware uprising. Teedyuscung agrees to visit the warring members of the tribe, and to try to end the fighting.

   July 29, 1868: After years of conflict over the Bozeman Trail along the Powder River, the War Department finally gives in to Indian's, and particularly Red Cloud's, demands and starts abandoning its forts. Fort C.F. Smith’s garrison packs-up and leaves. The fort is located near present day Yellowtail and Big Horn Lake, in southern Montana.

   July 30, 1829: In internal documents, the United States War Department formalizes a new Indian policy. Secretary of War John Eaton believes Indians will not be able to survive if the live in lands surrounded by white settlers.

  July 31, 1684: According to some sources, a six day conference starts between representatives of the New York colonies and the Mohawks, Oniedas, Onondagas and Cayugas. Some lands are ceded and allegiances are pledged.

Dates reprinted with permission by Phil konstantin

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