this month in Native American History
by Phil Konstantin

October


"Sha'teepakanootha"
Wilted Moon

Shawnee
 

 

special extended edition
October 1

630: Tajoom Uk'ab' K'ak', Maya King of Calukmal dies.

1539: Hernando de Soto's expedition reaches the Apalachee village of Ivitachuco (also called Ibitachuco), in northeastern Florida. The Spanish set up camp near the village. Throughout the evening, the Indians shoot arrows at the Spanish with little effect. The Narvaez Expedition has also visited the village in June 25, 1528, which may somewhat account for the hostile reception Hernando de Soto's Expedition receives.

1728: According to some sources, a conference on alliance and land cessions is held for the next four days between the British in New York and the "Six Nations."

1776: 1,800 Virginians arrive in the "Overhill" towns, and demand Dragging Canoe, and Alexander Cameron. The two men are leaders of the Cherokees in anti-United States activities during the Revolutionary War. The Cherokees refuse to give them up. The Virginians burn several towns.

1792: Just after midnight, almost 300 Cherokees, Chickamaugas, Creeks and Shawnees attack Buchanan's Station in the Cumberland region of Tennessee, near Nashville. They were led by Chickamauga Chief John Watts, Kiachatalee, and Creek Chief Talotiskee. There are only a little over a dozen defenders in the fort. In what turns out to be a futile effort, many of the Indians are killed by the crack shots within the fort. Almost all of the Indian leaders are killed, except John Watts, who is seriously wounded. When the Indians hear the sounds of a relief column coming from Nashville, they retire. None of the defenders of the fort are killed.

1800: The San Ildefonso Treaty is signed. A secret part of this treaty signed by France and Spain is for Spain to return the lands in Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to France.

1838: John Benge, and 1,103 Cherokees leave one of the concentration camps near the Tennessee Cherokee Agency. Benge's group is the first of several groups who supervise their own removal to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma).

1858: Colonel Albert Sidney, four companies from the 2nd Cavalry, 135 Indian scouts, and Texas Rangers, totally 350 men, fight Buffalo Hump's 500 Comanches at Rush Springs in south central Oklahoma. Another source says the army is led by Captain Earl van Dorn. Fifty-six "hostiles", and five soldiers are killed in the fighting. All 120 of the Comanche's lodges are burned. This campaign is part of what the army calls "The Wichita Expedition."

1859: The Sac and Fox sign a treaty. (15 stat.467) the United States is represented by Alfred Greenwood. They cede a large section of their reservation to the U.S.

1863: The Western Shoshone sign a treaty (18 stat. 689) at Ruby Valley.

1865: According to a government report, “the expense of subsisting the Navajoes and Apaches at Bosque Redondo reservation from March 1, 1864, to October 1, 1865, (eighteen months,) was about $1,114,981.70.”

1867: According to army records, members of the Ninth Cavalry on mail escort duty fight with a band of Indians near Howard's Well, Texas. Two soldiers are killed.

1873: There are numerous fights throughout the southwest. Captain G.W. Chilson, and Troop C, Eighth Cavalry, kill three Indians, and wound one, in a fight in the Guadalupe Mountains, in New Mexico Territory. Sergeant Benjamin Mew, and soldiers from Company K, 25th Infantry, skirmish with Indians at Central Station, Texas. Also, in Texas, a Sergeant, and thirteen soldiers fight with a band of Comanches. One Indian is reported wounded in this fight.

1879: Captain Francis Dodge, and Troop D, Ninth Cavalry, are patrolling when couriers from Major Thornburgh’s troops meet them. Dodge sends the message along, and then pretends to camp for the evening in case his actions are being observed. After dark, he issues rations for three days and 225 rounds of ammunition. Dodge, 37 soldiers and 4 civilians then head for Thornburgh's position.

1879: Army scouts capture a woman and a child from Victorio's band. The scout learns of the location of Victorio's camp from the female captive. The army speeds to the camp and captures lots of provisions, but the Apaches escape into the night.

1886: In Washington Territory certain land is "withdrawn from sale or other disposition, and set apart for the use and occupation" of the Chehalis Indians by an Executive Order from President Grover Cleveland.

1962: The Institute of American Indian Arts open

1962: The Tundra Times is first published.

1962: The Mi’kmaq Bear River First Nation reserve of Bear River #6B is established in Nova Scotia.

1969: In Ridgeville, South Carolina, marshals turn away Indian parents and children from a local school. The Indians wanted to be desegregated. A court order prohibits the Indians from attending white schools.

1969: The Commission of Indian Affairs authorizes an election for amendments to the Constitution of the Oglala Sioux of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.

1975: Morris Thompson, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, ratifies a Constitution and Bylaws approved by the Southern Ute Indian tribe of the Southern Ute Reservation in Colorado.

1990: Starting today, the Cherokee Nation becomes one of six tribes which have assumed responsibility for the disbursement of Bureau of Indian Affairs funds for their tribe. Prior to this Indian self-governance agreement, the B.I.A. decided how the funds should be spent.

October 2

906: Uxmal is a Maya ruin in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. A dedication ceremony is held for one of the buildings, according to an inscription in the building. (Photo: http://americanindian.net/mayac.html)

1535: Cartier arrives in the area of what eventually becomes Montreal. He encounters the Wyandot there.

1685: According to some sources, an agreement is reached for the Delaware Indians to cede some lands to Pennsylvania.

1696: According to some sources, a peace and alliance agreement is reached between representatives of the British in New York and the "Five Nations."

1775: George Galphin is appointed Commissioner of Indian affairs for the Southern District by the Continental Congress.

1798: A treaty (7 stat.62) with the Cherokees is signed at Tellico. The treaty refers to the July 2, 1791 Holston River Treaty, and attempts to correct some misunderstandings. It also refers to the June 26, 1794 treaty signed in Philadelphia. All treaties prior to this date are still in effect. Some Cherokee lands on the Tennessee River are ceded. Each party appoints one person to walk the new survey line. The Cherokees get $5000 in goods now, and $1000 annually. The Kentucky Road from the Cumberland Mountains to the Tennessee River is to remain safe and open. The Cherokee can hunt on their old lands if they do so peacefully. Thirty-nine Indians sign the treaty.

1818: Lewis Cass, Jonathan Jennings, and Benjamin Parke, representing the United States, sign a treaty (7 stat. 185) with the Potawatomi and Wea Indians on the St.Mary's River on the Indiana-Ohio border. The tribe exchanges vast holdings in Indiana for an annual payment of $2,500.

1833: Joel Bryan Mayes will become the Chief Justice of the Cherokee Supreme Court. In 1887, he is elected Principal Chief. He is born near Cartersville, Georgia.

1853: As a part of the “Walker War” in southern Utah, several Utes seek refuge in the local fort. Instead of protecting the Indians, they are killed by the settlers.

1858: Having been help prisoner by army forces under Colonel George Wright since September 23rd, Yakama Chief Owhi attempts to escape from Fort Dalles. Chief Owhi is shot and killed.

1863: The Red Lake and Pembina Chippewa sign a treaty. (3 stat.667)

1868: General William Hazen reports 100 Indians have attacked Fort Zarah, near present-day Great Bend in central Kansas. The Indians then attack a provision train and a ranch eight miles away. The Indians make off with almost 200 animals. General Alfred Sully reports that Indians have attacked a wagon train between Fort Larned and Fort Dodge, in Kansas. Three citizen are killed, and three wounded.

1872: Fort McKeen (later called Fort Abraham Lincoln), in central North Dakota, is attacked by approximately 300 Sioux Indians. According to army reports, one soldier is wounded and three Ree Indian scouts are killed.

1879: Captain Francis Dodge reaches the survivors of Major Thornburgh's troops which are under siege on the Milk River in Colorado by "hostile" Ute Indians. Sergeant Henry Johnson, Company D, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions during the next several days.

1972: The Commissioner of Indian Affairs authorizes an election to approve a Constitution for La Posta Band of Diegueno (Mission) Indians of the La Posta Indian Reservation, California. The election is held on January 26, 1973.

October 3

1763: As a part of "Pontiac's War," Indians ambush a force of five dozen rangers in western Virginia. Fifteen of the soldiers are killed in the fighting. After tracking the Indians, a force of 150 Virginia militia and volunteers, led by Charles Lewis, finds them on the South Fork of the Potomac River. The Europeans kill twenty-one of the Indians without suffering a single loss.

1764: Leaving Fort Pitt with more than 1,500 soldiers and militia, Colonel Henry Bouquet leads his men into Ohio in search of hostile Indians.

1786: A group of thirty settlers, organized by the McNitt family, are moving from Virginia to Kentucky. Tonight near present-day London, Kentucky, they are attacked by a Chickamauga war party. Twenty-one of the Europeans are killed, and five are captured. Of the four people who escape, one is a pregnant woman who hides in a hollow log where she gives birth.

1790: John Ross, destined to become one of the most famous Cherokee Chiefs, is born in Rossville, Georgia. While Ross is only one-eighth Cherokee, he spends his entire life working for the tribe.

1818: Lewis Cass, representing the United States, and the Delaware Indians sign a treaty (7 stat. 188) on the St. Mary's River on the Indiana-Ohio border. The treaty trades all of their lands in Indiana for land west of the Mississippi, supplies, and an increase in their annual payments from previous treaties.

1836: 165 of Captain F.S. Belton’s original 210 Creek "prisoners" are delivered to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Seventeen are given over to civil authorities. The rest either die in transit, or are unaccounted for.

1838: Black Hawk dies in Davis County, Iowa.

1854: Major Granville Owen Haller marches to avenge Indian agent A.J Bolon's death. He encounters the Yakama on October 5th.

1861: The Uintah and Ouray Reservation is established by Executive Order.

1866: Elements of the 14th Infantry fight some Indians near Cedar Valley, Arizona. Fifteen Indians are killed, and ten are captured according to 14th Infantry records.

1866: According to army records, soldiers with the 3rd Cavalry skirmish with a group of Indians near Trinidad, Colorado. One soldier is killed and three are wounded. Thirteen Indians are killed.

1866: In Long Valley, Nevada, the First Cavalry kills eight Indians in a fight, according to army records.

1868: Army records indicate that members of the 3rd Cavalry fight with a band of Indians in the Miembres Mountains in New Mexico. One soldier is wounded.

1872: Lieutenant Eben Crosby, 17th Infantry, Lieutenant L.D. Adair, 22nd Infantry, and a citizen are hunting near the Heart River, in Dakota, when they are attacked by Sioux Indians. In a fight which lasts until tomorrow, all three are killed.

1873: According to army reports, Tonkawa Indian scouts attacked a Comanche camp in Jones County, Texas. No other details are listed in the report.

1873: “Treaty 3 Between Her Majesty The Queen and The Saulteaux Tribe of the Ojibbeway Indians at the Northwest Angle On The Lake of the Woods with Adhesions” is signed in Canada.

1873: Captain Jack is hanged at Fort Klamath Oregon for his part in the Modoc War.

1936: The Secretary of the Interior has authorized an election to approve a Constitution and By-Laws for the Fort McDowell Mohave-Apache Community in Arizona. It is approved by a vote of 61 to 1.

1950: The Assistant Secretary of the Interior. Willam Warne, authorizes an election to approve a Constitution and By-Laws for the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians of Oklahoma. It is approved by a vote of 1,414 to 1.

1961: An election approves Amendment VI to the Constitution and Bylaws of the Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin.

1962: An Act passed allows the Federal Government to acquire land on the Crow Creek Sioux Reservation in South Dakota for the Big Bend Dam.

1981: The rules for the election of delegates to the Official Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska are amended.

October 4

1693: In 1680, Tewa leader Popé spurred an uprising of the Pueblos against the Spanish mission in New Mexico. Diego de Vargas leads an expedition to reconquer the area. His force consists of 100 soldiers, seventy-three settler families, eighteen priests, and some Indian allies.

1779: Five boatloads of ammunition and powder are working their way up the Ohio River. As they reach the Licking River in Kentucky, Colonel David Rogers sees some Indians on the shore. He sends his four dozen men after the Indians. In wait for Rogers are more than 130 Delaware, Mingo, Shawnee and Wyandot warriors led by Mathew Elliot and Simon Girty. All but a few of the Americans are killed in the ambush. The Indians lose only two men.

1838: Elijah Hicks and 748 Cherokees are the second group of Cherokees to leave the Tennessee Cherokee Agency area under their own supervision. They are part of the forced removal of the Cherokees to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). They arrive on January 4, 1839.

1842: Chippewa sign a treaty (7 stat. 591) in La Pointe, Wisconsin.

1868: Major Henry Douglass reports Indians have wounded a Mexican near Lime-Kiln. They also attacked a wagon train, killing two men and wounding two more. An attack at Asher Creek settlement gets the Indians seven horses and mules.

1868: Army records indicate that settlers fight with a band of Indians near Fort Dodge, Kansas. Two settlers are killed, and one is wounded.

1874: Indians fight with soldiers from the 9th Cavalry Infantry near Fort Sill, Indian Territory. According to army documents, one Indian is killed during this engagement which lasts until October 31st.

1876: Sixth Cavalry and some Indian scouts fight a group of Indians on the Tonto Plateau in Arizona. According to army documents, eight Indians are killed, and two are captured.

1877: Between today and tomorrow, 418 Nez Perce surrender to the army.

1878: Dull Knife and his band of Northern Cheyenne cross the Union Pacific line at Alkali station, Nebraska. Stationed in Fort Sidney, Nebraska, Major T.T. Thornburgh, and 140 soldiers, board a waiting train in an attempt to catch up to Dull Knife.

1922: Fort Apache, in Arizona, which is 7,579.75 acres in size, is established by Executive Order on February 1, 1877 is expanded.

1937: An election for the adoption of a Constitution and Bylaws for the Stockbridge Munsee Community of Wisconsin is authorized by the Assistant Secretary of the Interior. The election is held on October 30, 1937.

1944: Van T. Barfoot gets the Congressional Medal of Honor.

October 5

1675: As a part of King Philip's War, Springfield, Massachusetts is attacked by Agawam and Nipmuck Indians. A scout warns the village, and most of the settlers make it to fortified dwellings. Two settlers are killed and thirty buildings are burned during the fighting.

1724: French peace envoy Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont has been charged with making peace among the Indians of modern Kansas, part of the French territory of Louisiana. He holds a council. The council included representatives of the “Canza, Padouca, Aiaouez (Iowa?) and the Othouez (Otto?). The various Chiefs and representative all agree to peace and smoke each others' peace pipes.

1731: Natchez warriors led by Chief Farine attack a Natchitoches village at present-day day Natchitoches, Louisiana. The Natchez take over the village. The Caddoes and the French, under Louis Juchereau de St. Denis, retreat to nearby Fort St. Jean. During the subsequent fighting over the next eight days, more than six dozen Natchez are killed. The Natchez flee into the woods and are never a cohesive force again.

1813: Near the Thames River in Canada, American forces led by General William Henry Harrison, and British-Indian forces, led by Henry Proctor and Tecumseh, fight a decisive battle. Harrison's forces are much stronger. Setting up an ambush, the British and the Indians forces take up different positions. When Harrison's forces attack the 700 British soldiers, they cave in almost immediately. Tecumseh's Indians, fighting in a swamp, hold out until Tecumseh is killed. At the end of the fighting, 600 British are captured, eighteen are killed. Thirty-three Indians are killed, while none are captured. The American forces lose eighteen men, as well. Some sources report this happening on October 15th.

1838: Rev. Jesse Bushyhead, and almost 1000 Cherokees begin their emigration to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Many of the Cherokees in the group are Baptists. They are allowed to stop on Sundays so they can conduct religious services. Their march is delayed almost a month because of thick ice on the Mississippi River. Eighty-two member of this group die before they reach the Indian Territory on February 23, 1839.

1841: Recently, some Cayuse have broken windows in Marcus Whitman’s house in Waiilatpu. Whitman demands reparation from Cayuse Waptashtamakt. Waptashtamakt declines, but later a feast is attended by all. (Photo: http://americanindian.net/2003.html)

1854: Troops under Major Granville Owen Haller battle the Yakama to avenge Indian agent A.J Bolon's death. The fighting takes place southwest of modern Yakima, Washington.

1858: The last execution by Colonel George Wright as a consequence of the Spokane War is held.

1859: A treaty (12 stat. 1111) is concluded at the Kansas agency between the United States and the Kansa Indians. Representing the United States is Alfred Greenwood.

1866: Elements of the 1st Oregon Infantry fight some Indians near Fort Klamath, Oregon. Four Indians are killed, according to army records.

1869: Army records indicate that members of the 21st Infantry fight with a band of Indians near Dragoon Springs, Arizona. Four soldiers are killed.

1870: According to army records, members of Company M, 6th Cavalry engage "hostile Indians" at Holliday Creek along the Little Wichita River in Texas. For their "gallantry in pursuit of and fight with Indians", Sergeant Michael Welch, Corporals Samuel Bowden, Daniel Keating, Private Benjamin Wilson and post guide James B. Doshier will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

1877: According to army reports, Chief Joseph, 87 warriors, eighty-four women,and 147 children surrender near Bear Paw, Montana. They are within fifty miles of their goal: the Canadian border. It is here the Chief speaks the famous words: “From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more.”

1878: According to the commander of Fort Clark, near present-day Del Rio, Texas, four children of the Dowdy family are killed by Indians on the Johnson's Fork of the Guadalupe River.

1879: After marching 170 miles in a little over forty-eight hours, Colonel Wesley Merritt, and Troops A, B, I, and M, Fifth Cavalry, numbering 350 men, reach Major T.T. Thornburgh’s encircled men on the Milk River in Colorado. During the fight which started on September 30, 1879, the army reports twelve men, including Major Thornburgh, are killed. Forty in Thornburgh's command are wounded. The army estimates the Ute force to be between 300, and 350. Indian sources report the death of 37 Utes during the fighting. A subsequent search at the White River Agency, reveals the bodies of seven men, including Agent Nathan C. Meeker.

1898: "For distinguished bravery in action against hostile Indians," Private Oscar Burkard, Hospital Corps, US Army, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of honor. This fighting is a part of the Chippewa (Ojibwa) uprising at Lake Leech in northern Minnesota. This is the last Medal of Honor issued for fighting Indians.

1966: The official approved tribal roll for the San Pasqual Band of Mission (Diegueno) Indians in the San Pasqual Reservation is issued.

1974: Morris Thompsom, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, has authorized an election to approve a Constitution and By-Laws for the Upper Skagit Indian Tribe. It is approved by a vote of 65 to 2.

1985: The Constitution and the rules for the election of delegates to the Official Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska are amended.

October 6

649: The eventual Maya King of Calukmal, Yuknoom Yich'aak K'ak' (Jaguar Paw Smoke), is born.

1539: Hernando de Soto reaches the Apalachee town of Iniahica, near present-day Tallahassee. He picks this town as his winter quarters. He maintains this camp until March 3, 1540.

1598: Juan de Oñate leaves his base in San Juan Pueblo. He is en route to "visit" the Pueblos to the west.

1713: Indians attack Captain Richard Hunnewel, and nineteen men working in the fields outside Black Point, Maine. Only one European survives in this fight on Prout's Neck in Scarborough. A nearby pond is called Massacre Pond because of this battle.

1759: In retribution for Abenaki attacks on New England settlements, Major Robert Rogers, 180 of his rangers, and a few Stockbridge scouts stage a predawn attack on the Abenaki village at St. Francis, Quebec. Rogers claims to kill 200 Abenakis, while his losses are one scout. He recovers five captives and 600 "English" scalps.

1774: In what is called Lord Dunmore's War, Virginia Governor John Murray  (the Earl of Dunmore,) authorizes an army of Virginians to go into Shawnee territory despite a royal proclamation which prohibits European settlements west of the Appalachian Mountains. Dunmore has granted land to veterans in the prohibited area, and he plans on helping them get it. Today around 800 Shawnees under Chief Cornstalk attack Dunmore's force of 850 men at Point Pleasant, in present-day western West Virginia, on the Ohio and Kanawha Rivers. The fighting lasts all day. Both sides suffer numerous casualties. Cornstalk loses the battle and eventually signs a peace treaty with the Virginians. Some sources say this happens on October 10th.

1786: A large force of primarily Kentucky militiamen attack a peaceful Shawnee village on the Mad River, not far from modern Bellefontaine, Ohio. The force is led by Benjamin Logan. One of the Colonels is Daniel Boone. Many Indians are killed, including Chief Molunthy, and a few prisoners are recovered.

1818: Lewis Cass, Jonathan Jennings and Benjamin Parke, representing the United States, sign a treaty (7 stat. 189) with the Miami Indians at the Saint Mary's River on the Indiana-Ohio border. The Miami give up a large section of their lands for an annuity. (7 stat.189)

1825: The Makah sign a treaty (7 stat. 282) at Fort Atkinson.

1851: One in a series of treaties is signed with California Indians on the Lower Klamath. The document promises lands for the Indians and to protect them from angry Americans.

1862: “ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT and convention made and concluded at Manitowaning, or the Great Manitoulin Island in the Province of Canada, the sixth day of October, Anno Domini, 1862, between the Hon. William McDougall, Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, and William Spragge, Esq., Deputy Superintendent of Indian Afflirs, on the part of the Crown and Government of said Province, of the first part, and Mai-she-quong.-gai, Okemah-be-ness, J. B. Assiginock, Benjamin Assiginock, Nai-be nesse-me, She-ne-tah-guw, George Ah-be-tos-o-mai, Paim-o-quo-naish-gung, Abence, Tai-bose-gai, A-to-nish-cosh, Nai-wau-dai-ge-zhik, Wau-kau-o- say, Keesh-kewanbik, Chiefs and Principal Men of the Ottawa, Chippewa and other Indians occupying the said island, on behalf of the said Indians, of the second part.”

1867: According to army records, members of the 8th Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near Trout Creek, Arizona. Seven Indians are reported killed.

1870: Troop K, 2nd Cavalry, are now stationed at the Carlisle School.

1892: The Jerome Agreement is signed by the United States and the Apache, Comanche and Kiowa tribes of Indians in the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). This divides much of their land into individual plots. The signatories include David H. Jerome, Alfred M. Wilson and Warren G. Sayre as Commissioners on the part of the United States. It is also signed by 456 others, including Quanah Parker, Lone Wolf and Big Tree.

1972: An official tribal census for the Yankton Sioux is listed.

1986: Congress designates the path the Nez Perce took in their flight from the army in 1877 as "the Nez Perce Historical Trail." (Photo: http://americanindian.net/2003.html)

October 7

1672: White Mountain Apaches raid the Zuni pueblo of Hawikuh and kill a priest named Pedro de Abila y Ayala.

1691: The Charter of Massachusetts Bay is issued.

1701: In an address to William Penn, Susquehannah Chief Oretyagh and other Shawnee leaders once again request that traders be prevented from selling alcohol to the local Indians. Penn assures them that the Pennsylvania assembly is doing just that.

1719: An expedition of 800 soldiers and Indian allies, and 1,000 horses are being led by Spanish Governor Antonio de Valverde. They are searching for groups of Utes and Comanches who have been raiding ranches and settlements in Colorado. Along Fountain Creek, one of their scouts, Chief Carlana, finds signs of a recent campsite used by the raiders.

1759: Last year Tawehash Indians helped to destroy the Spanish Mission of San Sabá de la Santa Cruz in east Texas. The Spanish have finally gathered a punitive expedition.  Leading 1,000 Spanish with their Indian allies, Diego Ortiz Parrilla attacks the Tawehash village. With help from their allies --the Comanches and Tawakonis -- the Tawehash fight back. The Tawehash  force the the Spanish to retreat and kill as many as 100 men in the process.

1763: As a result of Pontiac's Rebellion, the British Government issues “The Royal Proclamation of 1763” prohibiting Europeans from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains.

1775: In what becomes the Pittsburgh Treaty, Congressional commissioners meet with several Indian tribes. They agree to the Ohio River as the local boundary line. The Indians agree to release some prisoners and not to get involved in the Revolutionary war.

1844: A treaty conference is held between Texans, headed by Sam Houston, and the Anadarko, Lipan Apache, Caddo, Cherokee, Comanche, Delaware, Hainai, Kichai, Shawnee, Tawakoni and the Waco.

1861: With Albert Pike, the Cherokees sign a treaty with the Confederacy in Park Hill on the Cherokee Reservation in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). The agreement is almost the same as that signed by the Creeks on July 10, 1861. Living up to their word, three Indian delegates sit in the Confederate Congress throughout the war, something hinted at by the United States, but never implemented. Pike presents the Cherokees with a special flag for their use during the war.

1863: The Tabeguache Band of Utah Indians sign a treaty (13 stat. 673).

1868: Army records indicate that settlers fight with a band of Indians near the Purgatory River in Colorado. One settler is killed.

1880: A Campo Indian has been found guilty of stealing a blanket in San Diego, California. County Justice of the Peace Gaskill orders his punishment to be 100 lashes. Gaskill is quoted as saying: "after one of these Indians has been whipped once, he will never steal again. It makes 'a good Indian' of him." The lashing almost kills the Indian.

1947: Legislation is proposed which sells the "Wyandote Indian burial ground" in Kansas City, Kansas.

1952: An election approves Amendment IV to the Constitution and Bylaws of the Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin.

1965: An amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida is approved by Assistant Secretary of the Interior Harray Anderson.

1969: Senator Ted Kennedy calls for a White House conference on Indian problems in a speech. He criticizes B.I.A. efforts.

1971: The Commissioner of Indian Affairs designates four people (Grace Cuero Banegas, Maria Sevella La Chappa, Cynthia Victoria Sevella, Gwendolyn Ludwina Sevella) as members of the La Posta Band of Mission Indians of the La Posta Indian Reservation, California. Based on their constitution, members of the tribe are either linear descendants of these four people or adopted people.

1974: Commissioner of Indian Affairs Morris Thompson authorizes an election for amendments to the Pawnee of Oklahoma Constitution.

October 8

1541: Hernando de Soto fights with Caddo Indians in Tula, Arkansas.

1758: Running through October 26th, the Council of Easton begins in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Eventually, the Iroquois and Delaware sign peace treaties. Large parts of the much-hated treaty of Albany are abrogated.

1779: El Mocho is born an Apache; but he is captured by the Tonkawas. His bravery and natural leadership abilities eventually lead the Tonkawas to make him their Principal Chief. He meets with Spanish Governor Athanase de Mezieres in San Antonio. They sign a peace treaty and El Mocho, (Spanish for mutilated), is honored with a Medal of Honor. The peace only lasts a few years.

1804: Lewis (of Lewis and Clark) visits an occupied Ricara village.

1832: The Eastern Cherokees meet a second time to discuss Elisha Chester's proposal for their removal to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). While some of the lesser-bloods favor the proposal, the full-bloods vote it down. Chester warns them that if they do not agree to move, they face the wrath of the State of Georgia.

1855: James Lupton leads whites against "friendly" Rogue River Indians in California. They kill eight men, and fifteen women and children. Survivors flee to Fort Lane in southwestern Oregon for safety.

1869: Army records indicate that members of the First Cavalry fight with a band of Indians in Chiricahua Pass in Arizona. Two soldiers are wounded. Twelve Indians are killed.

1873: Big Tree and Satanta are released from prison with the proviso that the Kiowas remain peaceful. After some raids by the Kiowas,  Satanta is eventually returned to prison.

1873: Indians fight with soldiers from the 8th Cavalry in the Chiricahua Mountains in Arizona, according to army documents. No casualties are reported.

1938: An election is held to approve a Constitution and By-Laws for the Sokaogon (Mole Lake Band) Chippewa Community of Wisconsin. It passes by a vote of 61 to 1.

1958: An election for the adoption of a Constitution and Bylaws for the Pueblos of Laguna in New Mexico is held. It is approved by a vote of 1,331 to 92.

1964: The Assistant Secretary of the Interior has authorized an election to approve a Constitution and By-Laws for the Cocopah Tribe of Somerton, Arizona. It is approved by a vote of 16 to 0.

1970: The Commissioner of Indian Affairs authorizes an election for a new constitution for the Reno-Sparks Indian Community.

1983: The Constitution and the rules for the election of delegates to the Official Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska are amended.

1984: Activist Dennis Banks is sentenced to jail for three years.

1993: A Conservation Code is amended, passed and approved by the Bay Mills General Tribal Council in Bay Mills, by a vote of 63 for, 4 opposed, and 2 abstaining.

October 9

1776: The Mission at San Francisco is started.

1804: Lewis and Clark hold a council with Ricara chiefs.

1805: The "Shoshonie" guide leaves Lewis and Clark.

1833: The Pawnee sign a treaty (7 stat. 448) at the “Loup.”

1844: A trade and peace treaty is signed between Texas and the Anadarko, Lipan Apache, Caddo, Cherokee, Comanche, Delaware, Hainai, Kichai, Shawnee, Tawakoni and the Waco at Tehuacana Creek.

1855: Tecumton (Elk Killer) and other Rogue River Indians retaliate for yesterday's attack. They destroy farms near Evan's Ferry. They attack, and kill eighteen people at Jewett's Ferry, Evan's Ferry, and Wagoner's ranch. The whites call it the "Wagoner Massacre."

1861: Cherokee Chief John Ross presents a treaty with the Confederate States of America to the Cherokee National Assembly for their consideration and ratification.  (Photo: http://americanindian.net/cherokee1.html)

1868: Army records indicate that members of the 1st and 8th Cavalry, the 14th and 32nd Infantry, and some Indian scouts fight with a band of Indians near the Salt River and Cherry Creek in Arizona. Thirteen Indians are killed.

1871: Comanches under Quanah Parker steal horse from soldiers under Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie.

1874: Lieutenant Colonel George Buell and Companies A, E, F, H, and I, 11th Infantry, attack a camp of Kiowas on the Salt Fork of the Red River, in Texas. One Indian is killed, and the camp is destroyed. The escaping survivors are pursued for some distance. Many lodges along the way are destroyed, as well.

1876: Settlers fight some Indians near Eagle Springs, Texas. According to army documents, one settler is killed.

1890: Kicking Bear visits with Sitting Bull. They talk about the ghost dance.

1940: A permit is now required for alcohol to be used as medicine in the Kiowa Indian hospital.

1940: An Act (54 Stat. 1057) is passed by Congress to “allow for the leasing of any Indian lands on the Port Madison and Snohomish or Tulalip Indian Reservations in the State of Washington by the Indians with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior for a term not exceeding twenty-five years.”

1955: Membership rules and regulations for the Wichita Indian Tribe of Oklahoma are adopted.

1978: The Cherokee Tribal Council adopts an official flag designed by Stanley John.

1985: An Amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Fort Belknap Indian Community of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation in Montana is adopted.

October 10

1540: Hernando de Soto enters a village called Athahachi. Here he meets the village chief, Tascaluca. Tascaluca is taken as a hostage by Hernando de Soto to insure the cooperation of the Chief's followers.

1615: Champlain fights with the Onondagas north of modern Syracuse, New York.

1678: Governor Frontenac leads a meeting in Quebec which debates the merits of allowing Indians to have alcohol.

1759: Shawnee Chief Cornstalk and his followers attack settlements at Carr's Creek in Rockbridge County, Virginia. They kill a half dozen Europeans.

1771: Spanish soldiers attack the wife of a Kumeyaay chief. The Chief attacks the involved soldiers, and he is killed.

1774: On a piece of land where the Great Kanawha River joins the Ohio River, called Point Pleasant, one of the biggest battles of the French and Indian war takes place. 800 Shawnees led by Chief Cornstalk attack a force of 850 Virginians led by Colonel Andrew Lewis, at dawn. Sniping leads to hand-to-hand combat. By the end of the fighting, after dark, Shawnee losses are estimated at as many as 200 warriors (some sources say 40). The Virginians have seventy-five soldiers killed, including many officers, and 140 wounded. This significant loss of warriors is a contributing force in Cornstalk's eventual decision to give up the war. Some sources say this happens on October 6th.

1777: According to some sources, Shawnee Chief Cornstalk (Hokolesqua) is killed in Fort Randolf. He has gone to seek a peace conference and is placed in a cell. Captain John Hall, and several others, come into the cell and shoot and kill Cornstalk.

1804: Lewis and Clark hold a council with an entire Ricara village.

1805: Lewis and Clark find the Snake River and log a long discussion on the Nez Perce.

1817: John C. Calhoun is offered the job of Secretary of War by President James Monroe. In this position, Calhoun oversees affairs dealing with Indians.

1839: The convention of Cherokees, which began on September 6,  finally comes to an end. During the meetings a new Constitution is adopted, new Chiefs are elected, judges are appointed, and new laws are made. However, many "old settlers" disavow any actions taken at this convention. They believe the old settler government is still in power.

1858: The Butterfield stage arrives in San Francisco.

1865: The Miniconjou Band Sioux Treaty (14 stat.695) is signed. Through the 28th will be the signing of the Bozeman Trail Treaties.

1867: According to army records, members of the 14th Infantry fight with a band of Indians near Camp Lincoln, Arizona. One Indian is killed.

1867: According to army records, members of the Thirty-First Infantry fight with a band of Indians near Fort Stevenson, Dakota Territory. One soldier is wounded.

1868: Army records indicate that settlers fight with a band of Indians near Fort Zarah, Kansas. No injuries are reported.

1871: According to army records, members of the Fourth Cavalry, under Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie, engage "hostile Indians" on the Brazos River in Texas. For his efforts in stopping the Indians from overrunning his position, Second Lieutenant Robert G. Carter is awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. This is a part of the action which led to the “Battle of Blanco Canyon.”

1876: Captain C.W. Miner and Companies H, G, and K, 22nd Infantry, and Company C, 17th Infantry, are guarding ninety-four wagons en route from Glendive Creek, Montana, to the force at the mouth of the Tongue River. The wagon train is attacked by several hundred Indians. The wagon train retreats to the Glendive base. Soldiers replace the drivers, and with reinforcements, including Lieutenant Colonel E.S. Otis, the force of 237 soldiers proceeds to the soldiers' camped on the Tongue River.

1878: After being forced to abandon his supply wagons four days ago due to deep sand, Major T.T. Thornburgh's troops are out of supplies. The Major gives up his pursuit of Dull Knife's Cheyennes near the Niobrara River and retreats to Camp Sheridan, in northwest Nebraska.

1883: The first Lake Mohonk -Friends conference takes place.

1885: Fourth Cavalry couriers fight a group of Indians near Lang’s Ranch, New Mexico. According to army documents, one soldier is killed.

1894: Indian School Superintendent Samuel Hertzog reports that thirty Hopi “hostiles” have seized several plots of land in Munqapi. The “hostiles” plant wheat in the fields.

1918: The First American (Indian) Church is incorporated in El Reno, Oklahoma. Original members include, Cheyennes, Apaches, Poncas, Comanches, Kiowas, and Ottos.

1938: The Acting Secretary of the Interior authorizes an election to approve a new Constitution and By-Laws for the Ottawa Indians of Oklahoma. The election is held on November 30, 1938.

1939: An election for a Constitution and Bylaws of the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma is held.

1944: Public Land Order Number 248 transfers jurisdiction of 320 acres of land in the Fort Peck Reservation in Montana from the Secretary of Agriculture to the Secretary of the Interior as a part of the Milk River Land Utilization Project.

1980: The Maine Indian Claims Act (94 Stat. 1786) takes place. Its purpose is to “extend Federal recognition, provides for State jurisdiction with agreement of tribes, organization of tribal governments, and enrollment of members.”

October 11

1736: According to some sources, an agreement covering friendship and land cessions is reached by representatives of the Cayuga, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca and Tuscarora Indians and Pennsylvania.

1794: Tennessee Governor William Blount meets with Chickamauga Chief John Watts (Young Tassel) in the Tellico blockhouse near the French Broad River in eastern Tennessee. They agree to have a conference in November to discuss peace between the warring settlers and the Chickamaugas.

1809: Meriwether Lewis dies.

1812: After a series of Seminole attacks in Georgia, the local militia, led by Colonel Daniel Newnan, invaded Spanish-held Florida seeking revenge. Today, they are reinforced. They have been fighting a running battle with the Alachua Band of Seminoles led by "King" Payne since September 17th.

1832: The Apalachicola Band signs a treaty (7 stat. 377) at Tallahassee.

1838: Lieutenant Edward Deas departs with almost 700 Cherokees from the Tennessee Cherokee Agency. This group of Cherokees supports the New Echota Treaty and is given special treatment and allowances for their emigration. They reach their new lands on January 7, 1839.

1842: John Chambers, representing the United States, and the Sauk and Fox Indians sign a treaty at their tribal headquarters in Iowa. The Indians receive more than $800,000 to cede their lands in Iowa and to move to new lands along the Missouri River. (7 stat.596)

1865: Fort Fletcher, is established as a military outpost in central Kansas. The fort is eventually renamed Fort Hays. It is the home of the 7th Cavalry for a while during the "Indian Wars" of the late1860s. The fort is abandoned in 1889.

1869: A confrontation has developed between Canadian surveyors and Louis Riel’s Metis cousin, Andre Nault. Andre does not want the surveyors on his land. Riel and a dozen other Metis respond to help. Riel walks up, steps on the surveyor’s chain and says, “You go no further.” This is the start of a rebellion which rocks Canada.

1871: Indians skirmish with a group of soldiers from the Fourth Cavalry Infantry on the Freshwater Fork of the Brazos River in Texas, according to official army records. One soldier is killed. Colonel Ranald Mackenzie is leading the troops.

1874: Satanta has become despondent about his life-term in the Huntsville, Texas, prison. He has slashed his wrists trying to kill himself, but he is unsuccessful. He is admitted to the prison hospital. Satanta jumps from a second floor balcony. He lands head first, and dies.

1876: 15th and 22nd Infantry soldiers fight some Indians near Spring Creek, Montana. According to army documents, no casualties are reported.

1876: The Black Hills treaty is signed by some Indians at Standing Rock Agency. (Photo: http://americanindian.net/2003q.html)

October 12

1492: According to some sources, Columbus lands in "new world." According to the Taino, they are the first “Native Americans” to greet Columbus on the Island of Guanahani (San Salvador).

1676: Mugg is an Arosaguntacook Chief. At the outbreak of King Philip's War, he seeks out a peace treaty with the English for his, and other, tribes. Rather than listen to him, the English throw him in jail. While he is soon released, his treatment makes him an enemy of the English. With 100 warriors, he attacks Black Point, Maine in retaliation. Most of the settlers escape, and he burns many of the structures. Mugg is killed in Black Point seven months later.

1758: British soldiers have built a fort in southwestern Pennsylvania, southwest of modern Johnston. The fort is named after the British Commander in Chief Lord Ligonier. A force of more 1,000 French and a few hundred Indians attack the fort. The attack is unsuccessful. The French and Indians retreat to Fort Duquense.

1761: The Mi’kmaq of Pictou sign a treaty with the British of Nova Scotia, according to some sources.

1824: The Cherokee Legislative Council passes a law which requires the loser in any court cases, appealed from the district level to the Cherokee Superior Court, to pay a fee equal to 6% of the judgment in the case. This fee goes into the Cherokee Treasury.

1833: Captain John Page leaves Choctaw Agency, Mississippi with 1000 Choctaw for the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Many of the Choctaw are old, lane, blind, or sick.

1843: The Cherokee Nation sets up police force.

1863: The Shoshone-Goshute sign a treaty (13 stat. 681) at Tuilla Valley. Goshute signers included Adaseim, Harry-nup, Tabby, and Tintsa-pa-gin.

1868: Lieutenant Edward Belger, 3rd Infantry, reports Indians have attacked near Ellsworth, Kansas. One white man has been killed, and several more are missing.

1868: Army records indicate that members of the 7th Cavalry fight with a band of Indians on the Arkansas River in Kansas. Two Indians are killed.

1869: Army records indicate that members of the 8th Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near Red Rock, Arizona. Two Indians are killed.

1888: Sioux Indians arrive in Washington, D. C. for a conference.

1936: An election is held to approve a Constitution and Bylaws for the Quileute Tribe of Washington. The results are 37 to 12.

October 13

1528: According to some sources, Cabeza de Vaca and eighty other Spaniards come across a river mouth into the Mississippi River. They are unable to enter the river though. They continue their journey west.

1846: The Winnebago sign a treaty (9 stat. 878) at Washington, D. C.

1864: Little Buffalo, with 700 of his fellow Comanche and Kiowas, launches a series of raids along Elm Creek, ten miles from the Brazos River, in northwestern Texas. Sixteen Texans and perhaps twenty Indians are killed in the fighting against the area's settlers and the Rangers.

1868: Army records indicate that members of the 2nd Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near the White Woman’s Fork of the Republican River in Kansas. The fighting lasts until October 30th. Two Indians are killed and three are wounded.

1874: A group of Navajo scouts attached to Major George Price's Eighth Cavalry attack a group of "hostile" Indians near Gageby Creek, Indian Territory.

1875: Adam Paine, a Private in the Seminole Negro Indian Scouts, receives the Medal of Honor for his actions in September 1874 in the Texas Panhandle.

1877: The Nez Perce and the army ferry across the Missouri River.

1879: Settlers fight a group of Indians near Slocum’s Ranch in New Mexico. According to army documents, eleven citizens are killed.

1890: Kicking Bear is ordered to leave the reservation by Indian police officers.

1950: The Acting Secretary of the Interior authorizes an election to approve a Constitution and By-Laws for the Eskimos of the Native village of Buckland, Alaska. The election is held on December 30, 1950.

1972: The Superintendent, Northern Idaho Agency, has authorized an election to approve an amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Coeur d’Alene Tribe. The election is held on November 18, 1972.

October 14

1754: Anthony Henday represents the Hudson Bay Company in an expedition to try to set up trade between his company and the Blackfeet.  He has his first meeting with a Blackfeet Chief. The Chief tells Henday the Blackfeet have everything they need and there is no need to trade with anyone.

1756: Leading French and Indian warriors, General Joseph de Montcalm captures Fort Oswego in New York. Montcalm fires upon his Indian allies when they attempt to kill the British forces after they surrender.

1768: At Hard Labor, South Carolina, British Superintendent of Indian Affairs meets with Cherokee Chiefs. They make a treaty which cedes 100 square miles of Cherokee lands. The treaty is renegotiated in two years.

1804: As a punishment, Lewis and Clark lash a member of their expedition. Indians who watch this “cry aloud.”

1805: Lewis and Clark "appropriate" Indian lumber.

1833: In Russell County, Alabama, a grand jury indicts United States Army soldier James Emmerson for allegedly murdering Hardiman Owen during a shootout. The army is assisting the United States Marshall in an attempt to remove Owen from Creek land. Owen has filled his cabin with explosives, and tries to kill the Marshal by setting it off. No one is killed, and Owen escaped. When Owen is later surrounded, he is shot when he tries to shoot a soldier. The army refuse to give up Emmerson. Deputy Marshal Jeremiah Austill is arrested as an accessory to murder.

1837: The second group of Cherokees to emigrate from the east, under the New Echota Treaty, leave the Cherokee Agency on the Hiwassee River in eastern Tennessee (present day Calhoun). The 365 Cherokees are supervised by B.B. Cannon. They travel on land for most of their journey. They reach their new lands on December 30, 1837. During the trip, four adults and eleven children die.

1846: The Cherokee make a new law which states that anyone who burns down a house will be sentenced to death.

1864: The Unites States signs a treaty (16 stat. 707) with the “Klamath, Moadoc tribes, and Yahooskin band of Snake.”

1865: The Lower Brule Sioux sign a treaty (14 stat.699).

1865: The Cheyenne and Arapaho sign a treaty (14 stat. 703) with the United States. The Little Arkansas River is included in tribal lands. The treaty derides Colonel Chivington for the Sand Creek massacre. The U.S. Senate deletes this section. The United States is represented by William W. Bent, Kit Carson, William Harney, Jesse Leavenworth, Thomas Murphy, John Sanborn and James Steele.

1866: Elements of the First Cavalry fight some Indians near Harney Lake Valley, Oregon. One soldier is wounded, four Indians are killed, and eight are captured according to army records.

1868: Troop L, 5th Cavalry, is camped on Prairie Dog Creek in Kansas. A band of Indians attacks the camp. One soldier is killed, and the Indians make off with twenty-six cavalry horses.

1868: According to Captain Penrose, of the 3rd Infantry, Satanta and his Kiowa warriors attack a wagon train on Sand Creek, Colorado. The Indians take a Mrs. Blinn and her child captive. According to Penrose, Blinn and her child are murdered by the Indians during General Custer's attack on Black Kettle's camp on November 27, 1868 on the Washita.

1869: Elements of the 8th Cavalry are on Lyry Creek, Arizona, when they encounter "hostile Indians." For "bravery in action" during the encounter, Privates David Goodman, John Raerick and John Rowalt, Company L, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

1871: Indians skirmish with a group of settlers near Cienega Sauz, Arizona, according to official army records. One settler is killed and another is wounded.

1872: Another large gathering of Sioux Indians attack Fort McKeen, in central North Dakota. Soldiers, from the 6th and 17th Infantries and eight Ree Indian scouts charge the Sioux. Three Sioux, and two soldiers are killed.

1876: Men from Troop K, 2nd Cavalry, skirmish with a band of Indians on Richard Creek in Wyoming. One soldier is killed.

1880: Victorio's Apaches are attacked by the Mexican army near Tres Castillos, in Chihuahua, Mexico. Victorio is shot and killed by a Mexican sharpshooter. Many of his followers are killed, as well. The Mexicans report killing seventy-eight men, and capturing sixty-eight women and children. Some sources say this fight took place on October 15th.

1891: Originally named Thocmetony (Shell Flower in Paiute), Sarah Winnemucca was the granddaughter of Paiute Chief Truckee Winnemucca, and daughter of Chief Winnemucca. She worked tirelessly to have the traditional Paiute lands returned to the tribe. She dies from tuberculosis.

1907: In Collinsville, Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), an event called “The Last Pow-Wow” takes place. It is intended as a ceremonial farewell of surviving American Indian Chiefs. The event continues through October 19th.

1924: Land is auctioned in Bismarck, North Dakota. The minimum bid is $1.25 per acre.

1936: The Secretary of the Interior authorizes an election for Amendments to the Constitution and By-Laws for the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin.

1966: The Hoh Indian Tribe approves an official tribal roll in accordance with Public Law 89-655 (80 Stat. 905).

1980: An amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Suquamish Indian Tribe of the Port Madison Reservation in the State of Washington is passed in an election.

1992: An act is passed in Congress (106 Stat. 2131) which establishes an eighteen member advisory committee to study policies and programs affecting California Indians.

October 15

625: Maya King B'alaj Chan K'awiil (Lightning Sky) is born. He eventually becomes ruler at Dos Pilas, Guatemala.

1606: Indians attack Samuel de Champlain's men at Chatham, Massachusetts.

1615: Samuel de Champlain, twelve Frenchmen, and many of his Huron allies attack the Iroquois town of Onondaga. Champlain is wounded, and several Hurons are killed. Champlain gives up the attack. Because of Champlain's actions, the Iroquois fight the French for years to come.

1748: Lands are allotted to the Tuscarora Indians by an act of the North Carolina General Assembly at Newbern.

1763: Earlier in the year, the father of Delaware Chief Captain Bull is burned to death by white settlers. To retaliate, his son and  followers attack and destroy most of the white settlements in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania.

1779: After Cornstalk dies, Black Fish (Chinugalla) becomes Principal Chief of the Shawnee. He leads an attack on Boonesbourgh starting on September 7, 1778. He becomes the adopted father of Tecumseh, his four brothers, and one sister. Black Fish dies from wounds he suffered during an attack on his village of Chalagawtha.

1802: Louisiana is transferred to France.

1813: While most sources report this happening on October 5th, some sources report the British battling Indians on the Thames River in Canada. Tecumseh is killed in the fighting.

1836: A treaty with five different Indian Nations (“Otoes, Missouries, Omahaws, and Yankton, and Santee bands of Sioux”) is signed (7 stat.524).

1866: Elements of the First Oregon Infantry fight some Indians near Fort Klamath, Oregon. Two soldiers are wounded, Fourteen Indians are killed and twenty are wounded, according to army records.

1868: Indians attack a house on Fisher and Yocucy Creeks. Four people are killed, one wounded, and one woman taken captive.

1869: Troopers chase a band of Indians into the Mogollon Mountain, New Mexico territory. After a brief struggle, the troopers recover thirty stolen horses.

1871: Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie’s troops have been seeking the Comanches under Quanah Parker. They enter Blanco Canyon. During the next several days they have several skirmishes with Comanches. These fights become known as the “Battle of Blanco Canyon.”

1872: During the first Yellowstone expedition, Indians fight with the army on numerous occasions. The army units involved are from the 8th,  17th, and 22nd Infantries and Indian scouts. They are led by Colonel D.S. Stanley, according to official army records. Over the entire expedition, two officers (Lt. Eben Crosby and Lt. L.D. Adair) and one civilian are killed or mortally wounded. The expedition started on July 26th.

1876: Lieutenant Colonel E.S. Otis' force of 237 soldiers and ninety-six supply wagons at the mouth of the Tongue River are attacked again on Spring Creek. This time the Indians are approximately 800 strong, according to army reports. A running battle continues. The Indians send numerous sorties against the wagons. They also set fire to the prairie grass, forcing the wagons to drive through the flames. Several people are killed and wounded on both sides.

1880: Victorio's Apaches are attacked by the Mexican army near Tres Castillos, in Chihuahua, Mexico. Victorio is shot and killed by a Mexican sharpshooter. Many of his followers are killed, as well. The Mexicans report killing seventy-eight men, and capturing sixty-eight women and children. Some sources say this fight took place on October 14th.

1888: The Sioux Indian conference in Washington, D.C. begins.

1890: Kicking Bird is removed from a reservation by Indian police.

1936: The Secretary of the Interior authorizes an election to approve a Constitution and By-1aws for the L’anse, Lac Vieux Desert, and Ontoagon Bands of Chippewa Indians, residing within the original confines of the L’Anse Reservation. The election is held on November 7, 1936.

1979: The Commissioner of Indian Affairs authorizes a vote for the approval of a new Constitution and By-Laws for the Ottawa Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. The election is held on December 19, 1980.

1987: Ross Swimmer (Cherokee), Assistant Secretary of Indian Affairs, authorizes an election for the approval of a Constitution and By-Laws for the Pascua Yaqui Indians.

October 16

1755: A band of Delaware Indians, numbering a little over a dozen, attack Penn's Creek village in Snyder County, Pennsylvania. Depending on the source, nineteen to twenty-five settlers are killed and a dozen are taken captive. This is the first uprising in the area in living memory. The raids move from settlements around New Berlin to Selinsgrove, according to settlers' accounts.

1826: The Potawatomi Indians sign a treaty (7 stat. 295) with the United States on the Wabash. The Americans are represented by Lewis Cass, James Ray and John Tipton.

1833: Twenty-one Chickasaw leaders, including Levi Colbert, Henry Love, and William McGillivrey, leave Tuscumbia, Alabama to assess the lands offered to them in the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) as part of their removal proposal by the U.S.  sgovernment. They arrive in the Indian Territory on December 4th. The government wants them to buy land from the Choctaws.

1837: After having fought for the government in the Seminole Wars, Jim Boy "Tustennuggee Emathla", a Creek leader, and other Creek Chiefs arrive in New Orleans, en route to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma).

1855: The Blackfeet Treaty Council meets on the Judith River. They sign a treaty (11 stat. 657) tomorrow.

1867: The Medicine Lodge Creek peace conference begins between the United States and most of the southern plains Indians. The United States wants to establish one large reservation for all of these Indians. The conference lasts until October 26th.

1869: The Metis create the National Council of the Metis (Comité National des Métis). This group is charged with representing the Metis in negotiations with the Canadian government. Louis Riel is named Secretary of the group.

1870: Troop B, ith Cavalry, under Captain William McCleave, skirmish with Indians in the Guadalupe Mountains, in New Mexico Territory. One Indian is killed, and eight are captured.

1876: The Black Hills treaty is signed by some Indians on the Cheyenne Reservation.

1876: Colonel E.S. Otis and his wagon train for the soldiers at the Tongue River, continues toward their destination. Indians continue to snipe at Otis' forces. An Indian is spotted leaving a message in the wagon's path. The message says: "I want to know what you are doing traveling on this road. You scare all the buffalo away. I want to hunt in this place. I want you to turn back from here. If you don't I will fight you again. I want you to leave what you have got here and turn back from here. I am your friend, Sitting Bull. I mean all the rations you have got and some powder. Wish you would write as soon as you can." Otis sends a reply stating he is going to the Tongue River, and if the Indians want a fight, he will give them one. More sniping begins on both sides. Soon two Indians appear under a flag of truce. They say Sitting Bull wants to talk with Otis, but both sides cannot agree on the location. Three Chiefs then come to Otis. They say they are hungry and want peace. Otis gives them 150 pounds of bread and two sides of bacon. Otis tells them if they wish to surrender, they can go to the Tongue River camp and talk there.

1891: President Benjamin Harrison, by Executive Order, extends the Hoopa Valley Indian reservation along the Klamath River to the Pacific Ocean, except for lands ceded elsewhere.

1940: A large group of Navajos enlist in the military.

1946: The original Constitution and By-Laws of the Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota are approved by John McGue for the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.

October 17

1776: In November of 1775, Kumeyaay Indians destroy the Mission San Diego de Alcala in what becomes San Diego, California. The Mission is now ready to be occupied again.

1782: Cherokee Indians sign the "Long Swamp" treaty with General Andrew Pickens in Selacoa, Georgia. They cede land in Georgia as reparations for the fighting during the Revolutionary War.

1788: Gillespie's Station is located near Knoxville in Tennessee. It is protected by a small group of local settlers and frontiersmen. A force of Chickamaugas, led by Bloody Fellow, Categisky, Glass and John Watts, attacks the station. The settlers are able to hold off the attack until their ammunition runs out. The Chickamaugas then enter the buildings and kill all of the men and take the women as prisoners. Two warriors claim the daughter of Colonel Gillespie as a prisoner. To settle the argument, the warriors stab her to death. Most of the prisoners are eventually traded for captured Indians.

1802: A treaty (7 stat. 73) with the Choctaw is concluded at Fort Confederation on the Tombigbee River. The original British boundary line is redrawn and reestablished as the new boundary. Other parcels are ceded for $1. Ten Indians sign the document.

1805: Lewis and Clark stay with Sokulks Indians tonight..

1840: Cherokee Judge John Martin dies near Fort Gibson in eastern Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). According to his gravestone, he is the first Chief Justice of the Cherokee Supreme Court.

1855: The United States signs a treaty (11 stat. 657) with three major Indian Nations. These are the Blackfoot Nation, (the Piegan, Blood, Blackfoot, and Gros Ventres tribes), the Flathead Nation (Flathead, Upper Pend d’Oreille, and Kootenay tribes), and the Nez Percé tribe. This treaty establishes the Fort Belknap Reserve. It is occupied by the "Grosventure and Assiniboin tribes and covers 840 square miles." Photo:  http://americanindian.net/2003w.html)

1858: Zuni warriors rescue twenty-five soldiers who are being attacked by approximately 300 Navajos near Fort Defiance on the Arizona-New Mexico boundary.

1863: Kit Carson has been conducting a campaign against the Navajos who have not reported to their assigned reservation. This is called the Canyon de Chelly Campaign. Carson affects a scorched earth policy, trying to starve the Navajos into submission. Two Navajos appear at Fort Wingate, in western New Mexico, under a flag of truce. One of the two is El Sordo, brother to Navajo leaders Barboncito, and Delgadito. He proposes that the Navajos live next to the fort so the soldiers can keep an eye on them at all times. They still do not wish to move away from their homelands to the Bosque Redondo Reservation. The army turns down the proposal and insists the Navajos go to the reservation.

1865: The United States signs a treaty (14 stat. 713) with three different Indian Nations: "where as the Apache Indians, who have been heretofore confederated with the Kiowa and Comanche tribes of Indians, are desirous of dissolving said confederation and uniting their fortunes with the said Cheyenees and Arapahoes; and whereas the said last-named tribes are willing to receive among themselves . . . "

1867: According to army records, members of the 6th Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near Deep Creek, Texas. Three Indians are reported killed, and one is captured.

1868: Cheyenne Indians are involved in a fight at Beaver Creek.

1874: Indians fight with soldiers from the Sixth Cavalry near the Washita River in Indian Territory. According to army documents, no casualties are reported.

1877: The Fort Walsh conference begins in Saskatchewan, Canada. Participating in the conference are Sitting Bull, leader of the Lakota Sioux, American General A.H. Terry, and Major James Walsh of the North-West Mounted Police.

1890: Indian Agent James "White Hair" McLaughlin writes a letter to the government saying that Sitting Bull must be neutralized.

1894: Fort Bowie, in southwestern Arizona, is closed by the army.

1939: A Constitution and By-Laws for the Alabama-Coushattas which is approved on August 19, 1938, is ratified.

1974: The Acting Deputy Commissioner of Indian Affairs authorizes an election to approve the Revised Constitution and By-Laws of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. The election is held on December 17, 1974.

1978: The Tribally Controlled Community College Assistance Act of October 17, 1978 (106 Stat. 797) is passed by Congress. Its purpose is to “provide for grants for the operation and improvement of tribally controlled community colleges to ensure continued and expanded educational opportunities for Indian students. Encourages partnership between institutes of higher learning and secondary schools serving low income and disadvantaged students to improve retention and graduation rates, improve academic skills, increase opportunities and employment prospects of secondary students.”

1984: President Reagan signs the Indian Restoration Act.

1988: The Indian Gaming Regulation Act of October 17, 1988 (102 Stat. 2468) is passed by Congress. Its purpose is to “provide a statutory basis for the operation of gaming by Indian tribes as a means of promoting economic development, self-sufficiency; to regulate gaming to shield it from organized crime and other corrupting influences so that tribe is the primary beneficiary, to assure that gaming is fair and honest by operator and players; to establish an independent Federal regulatory authority for gaming, establish Federal standards for gaming, and to protect gaming as a means of generating tribal revenue.”

October 18

1540: Hernando de Soto arrives at the Mobile Indian village of Mabila, in present-day Clark County, Alabama. As they approach the village, Tascaluca disappears into a building. The Mobile Indians, under Chief Tuscaloosa (Tascaluca), attack de Soto's invading army. In the bloody conflict, as many as 3,000 Indians are killed by the armored Spaniards. Approximately twenty Spaniards are killed, and 150 wounded, including de Soto, according to their chroniclers.

1683: According to some sources, representatives of Pennsylvania purchases several sections of land from the Delaware Indians.

1724: French peace envoy Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont has been sent from Fort Orleans to establish peace among the Indians of modern Kansas (part of then Louisiana). He meets the Padoucas in their home territory.

1770: The Lochabar Treaty is negotiated between Virginia and the Cherokees. This moves the Virginia boundaries to the west. Virginia is represented by John Donelson, Alexander Cameron, and John Stuart.

1805: Lewis and Clark meet Yelleppit, a WallaWalla Chief.

1820: A treaty (7 stat. 210) is negotiated between Andrew Jackson and the Choctaws. The Choctaws give up lands in Mississippi for land in western Arkansas and what becomes Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Part of the lands Jackson promised to the Indians belong to Spain, or are already settled by Europeans. This is called the Treaty of Doak's Stand. Chief Pushmataha is one of the signers. This is the first treaty which involves the movement of tribes to Indian Territory.

1848: The Menominee sign a treaty (9 stat. 952) at “at Lake Pow-aw-hay-kon-nay, in the State of Wisconsin”.

1864: The United States signs a treaty (14 stat. 637) with the Chippewa, Ottawa and Potowatomi.

1865: The Comanche and the Kiowa sign a treaty on the Little Arkansas River in Kansas (14 stat.717). Twenty-four Indians sign the treaty. The United States is represented by John. B. Sanborn, William S. Harney, Thomas Murphy, Kit Carson, William W. Bent, Jesse H. Leavenworth, and James Steele.

1867: Third Cavalry Soldiers from Fort Union (New Mexico) have been tracking a group of Mescalero Apache who stole a herd of cattle from near the fort. The soldiers, under Capt. Francis H. Wilson, finally catch the Mecalero in Texas. A fight ensues and the Indians flee the area.

1867: According to army records, members of the 3rd Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near Sierra Diablo, New Mexico. One soldier is killed and six are wounded. The army reports twenty-five to thirty Indians are killed.

1868: Captain L.H. Carpenter and cavalry troops from companies H, I, and M are on Beaver Creek in Kansas, when they engage a large group of Indians. According to army reports, three soldiers are wounded, and ten Indians are killed.

1876: On this night, Colonel E.S. Otis' wagon trail is met by Colonel Nelson Miles, who has brought out his regiment to escort them to the camp. Otis delivers his goods and returns to the Glendive Creek camp on October 26th.

1886: Tenth Cavalry soldiers capture eight Indians in the Black River Mountains of Arizona, according to army documents.

1926: The Office of Indian Affairs receives and records the official Annuity Pay Roll (official tribal roll) for the Chitimacha Tribe of Louisiana.

1969: The Acting Assistant Commissioner of Indian Affairs has authorized an election to amend the Constitution and By-Laws of the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin. The results are 304 to 95 in favor.

1972: Amendment I to the Revised Constitution and By-Laws of the Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota becomes effective when it is approved by BIA Area Director Wyman Babby.

October 19

612: Maya Queen Muwaan Mat (Lady Beastie) ascends to the throne in Palenque, Mexico. (Photo: http://americanindian.net/mayae.html)

1675: Nipmuck, Norwottock and Pocumtuck warriors under Nipmuck Sachem attack the British settlement of Hatfield in New England. The fight is eventually terminated when neither side can get the upper hand.

1724: French peace envoy Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont finally encountered the “Padouca” in their own lands yesterday. Today he holds a grand council with more than 2,000 Indians. According to a journal of the expedition, he will “exhort them to live as brethren with their neighbors, the Panimhas, Aiaouez, Othouez, Canzas, Missouris, Osages and Illinois, and to traffic and truck freely together, and with the French...”

1818: Andrew Jackson and Isaac Shelby represent American interests in a treaty conference. The Chickasaws cede their claims to lands in Tennessee (7 stat.192).

1836: Lieutenant Colonel John Lane, with 690 Creek warriors, and ninety soldiers, reaches Fort Drane northwest of present-day Ocala, Florida. They are there to fight the Seminoles.

1838: The Iowa Indians sign a treaty. (7 stat.568)

1841: Tallahassee Seminole Chief Tiger Tail (Thlocko Tustennuggee) surrenders to American forces based on the intervention of Seminole Chief Alligator (Hallpatter Tustennuggee). In only three months, though, Tiger Tail escapes from government detention in Fort Brooke.

1846: The Mormon Battalion blazes a trail through Indian country.

1865: The "Two Kettle Band" and "Blackfeet Sioux" sign a treaty (14 stat. 699).

1868: Army records indicate that members of the 8th Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near the Dragoon Fork of the Verde River in Arizona. One soldiers is wounded, and seven Indians are killed.

1871: Indians skirmish with a group of soldiers from the 4th Cavalry Infantry on the Freshwater Fork of the Brazos River in Texas, according to official army records. Two Indians are killed. Colonel Ranald Mackenzie, who led the troops, is wounded in the fighting.

1888: The Sioux are engaged in a conference in Washington, D.C. They make a counter offer to a government proposal.

1935: The Constitution and By-Laws of the Fort Belknap Indian Community of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation in Montana are ratified.

1945: American Indian John N. Reese posthumously receives the Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions in World War II.

1973: The Indian tribal Funds Allotment and Distribution Act (39 Stat. 128, 87 Stat. 466, 101 Stat. 886). The act is intended “to distribute funds appropriated in satisfaction of judgments of Indian Claims Commission and the Court of Claims, and for other purposes.”

October 20

681: Maya King Itzamnaaj B'alam II(Shield Jaguar) ascends to the throne in Yaxchilan, Mexico. (Photo:  http://americanindian.net/mexico17.html)

1539: Led by Juan de Ayasco, thirty cavalrymen leave Hernando de Soto's winter quarters in Apalachee, Florida. They proceed to Tampa to escort the remainder of de Soto's army to his winter quarters. En route, the Spaniards have many battles with the local natives.

1774: Georgia Governor James Wright signs a treaty with the Creek Indians in Savannah. They agree to reestablish trade, which the Creeks want. The Creeks agree to give up some land along the Ocmulgee and Oconee Rivers, and to execute two Creek warriors accused of killing some settlers. Some sources say this treaty is signed on October 2nd.

1832: Marks Crume, John Davis, and Jonathan Jennings, representing the United States, and Potawatomi Indians sign a treaty (7 stat. 378) at Tippecanoe. The Indians give up lands near Lake Michigan for $15,000 a year, debt relief, and for supplies.

1832: The Chickasaws sign a treaty (7 stat. 381) for their removal to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), at the Pontotoc Creek Council House in Mississippi. Their lands (6,422,400 acres) are sold, and the government hold the proceeds for them. General John Coffee represents the United States.

1865: The Sans Arcs Band Sioux, Hunkpapa Sioux, and the Yanktonai Sioux sign a treaty (14 stat. 731).

1869: While fighting with "hostiles" in the Chiricahua Mountains of Arizona, Corporal Charles H. Dickens, Private John L. Donahue, Private John Georgian, blacksmith Mosher A. Harding, Sergeant Frederick Jarvis, Private Charles Kelley, trumpeter Bartholomew Keenan, Private Edwin L. Elwood, Corporal Nicholas Meaher, Private Edward Murphy, First Sergeant Francis Oliver, Private Edward Pengally, Corporal Thomas Powers; Privates James Russell, Charles Schroeter, Robert Scott, Sergeant Andrew Smith; Privates Theodore Smith, Thomas Smith, Thomas J. Smith, William Smith, William H. Smith, Orizoba Spence, George Springer; saddler Christian Steiner; Privates Thomas Sullivan, James Sumner; Sergeant John Thompson; Privates John Tracy, Charles Ward, Enoch Weiss, Companies B and G, Eighth Cavalry, will win the Congressional Medal of Honor for "gallantry in action." Two soldiers and eighteen Indians are killed. Lt. John Lafferty and two enlisted men are wounded.

1875: An Executive Order sets aside certain lands in New Mexico as a reservation for Mescalero Apaches. This order cancels the Executive Order of February 2, 1874.

1875: By an Executive Order, a tract of Montana land is "withdrawn from public sale and set apart for the use of the Crow tribe of Indians...to be added to their reservation." This tract covers 5,475 square miles and is occupied by Mountain and River Crow, according to government records.

1876: After being informed by Colonel E.S. Otis of Sitting Bull's request to end the warring, Colonel Nelson Miles and his regiment of 398 men set out to find Sitting Bull. Colonel Miles finds him near Cedar Creek, Montana, north of the Yellowstone River. The Colonel and Sitting Bull parley between the lines of the Indians and the soldiers, at Sitting Bull's request. Sitting Bull wants to trade for ammunition so he can hunt buffalo. He will not bother the soldiers if they do not bother him. Miles tells Sitting Bull of the government's demands for a surrender. While neither side is pleased, both agree to meet tomorrow.

1879: While leaders for the army and the Utes are negotiating to return prisoners and end hostilities, soldiers and Utes clash on the White River in Colorado. First Lieutenant William P. Hall and a scouting party of three men from the 5th Cavalry are attacked by thirty-five Indians about twenty miles from the White River. The fighting lasts most of the day, until after sunset, when the soldiers retreat to their main camp. The army reports two people killed on each side of the battle. Lieutenant Hall will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions.

1959: The Revised Constitution and By-Laws of the Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota is voted on. It is approved by a vote of 251 to 81.

1970: Today through October 22nd, the Indian Education Conference is held in California.

October 21

1763: Pontiac ends the siege of Detroit.

1769: The Spanish arrive in San Francisco Bay.

1770: Spanish and Opata Indians forces, led by Bernardo de Gálvez, cross the Rio del Norte (Rio Grande) into modern Texas near modern Ojinaga, Chihuahua. This is a punitive expedition directed toward the Apache. A former Apache captive is leading them to the village where he was held.

1837: Two treaties (7 stat. 540, 7 stat. 541) are signed by the Sac and Fox Indians. The Yankton Sioux also sign a treaty (7 stat. 542.

1837: After helping  lead a large group of Seminoles out of a relocation camp in Tampa Bay, Chief Osceola is pursued by American forces under General Thomas Jesup. While operating under direct orders of General Jesup, soldiers invite Osceola to talk under a white flag of truce. When Osceola joins them, he is taken captive. This is also reported to happen, by some sources, on October 27th.

1841: The Cherokees in Oklahoma outlaw the carrying of concealed weapons.

1867: Today (through October 28th) starts the biggest US-Indian conference ever held. The conference is held near Fort Dodge, Kansas near what is called Medicine Lodge Creek. The name comes from a Kiowa "medicine lodge" which is still standing from a recent Kiowa "sun dance" ceremony. Of the Kiowa and Comanche treaty (15 Stat. 589), some of the ten Kiowa signers are: Satanta, Satank, Black Bird, Kicking Bird, and Lone Bear. Ten Comanches, including Ten Bears sign, as will six Apaches. The United States is represented by Commissioner N.G. Taylor, Willaim Harney, C. C. Augur, Alfred H. Terry, John B. Sanborn, Samuel F. Tappan. and J. B. Henderson. Representing the Indians are ten Kiowas.

1868
: Army records indicate that members of the 8th Cavalry and 14th Infantry fight with a band of Indians between Fort Verde and Fort Whipple in Arizona. One soldier is wounded.

1876
: The "peace conference" continues between Sitting Bull and Colonel Nelson Miles. Both sides repeat their term as stated yesterday. Neither side is willing to compromise. Sitting Bull is told that by not accepting Miles' terms, he is committing a hostile act. Both sides quickly separate, and fighting soon break out. According to army reports, the 1,000 Indians are driven back for forty-two miles. They abandon great quantities of supplies in their retreat, including five dead. Miles is referred to as "Bear Coat" by the Indians because of his fur jacket. For "gallantry in action" in the battle actions which begin today and run through January 8, 1877, Private Christopher Freemeyer, Company D, Fifth Infantry; musician John Baker, Company D; Private Richard Burke, Company G; Sergeant Denis Byrne, Company G; Private Joseph A. Cable, Company I; Private James S. Calvert, Company C; Sergeant Aquilla Coonrod, Company C; Private John S. Donelly, Company G; Corporal John Haddoo, Company B; First Sergeant Henry Hogan, Company G; Corporal David Holland, Company A; Private Fred O. Hunt, Company A; Corporal Edward Johnston, Company C; Private Philip Kennedy, Company C; First Sergeant Wendelin Kreher, Company C; First Sergeant Michael McCarthy, Troop H; Private Michael McCormick, Company G; Private Owen McGar, Company C; Private John McHugh, Company A; Sergeant Michael McLoughlin, Company A; Sergeant Robert McPhelan, Company E; Corporal George Miller, Company H; Private Charles Montrose, Company I; First Sergeant David Roche, Company A; Private Henry Rodenburg, Company A; Private Edward Rooney, Company D; Private David Ryan, Company G; Private Charles Sheppard, company A; Sergeant William Wallace, Company C; Private Patton Whitehead, Company C; and Corporal Charles Willson, Company H, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

1878: Red Cloud Agency Indians offer to capture Dull Knife's Cheyennes if they can keep the horses and weapons they capture.

1961: An election for a proposed amendment to the Constitution of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe is held. The vote is 775-pro, 119-con.

1978: The Area Director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Vincent Little, authorizes an election for a fourth amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws for the Shoalwater Bay Indian Organization in Washington State. It is held and it passes.

1980: William Hallett, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, approves a Constitution for the “California Indians of the Robinson Rancheria.

1996: Executive Order 13021 is issued by President Clinton. It deals with Indian education. Among other things, it establishes in the “Department of Education a Presidential advisory committee entitled the President's Board of Advisors on Tribal Colleges and Universities.”

October 22

612: Palenque Maya Lady Zac - Kuk ascends the throne according to the museum at Palenque.

726: Maya King Itzamnaaj K'awiil (Shield God K) dies according to a stele at Dos Pilas (Guatemala).

1784: Richard Butler, Arthur Lee, and Oliver Walcott, representing the United States, and twelve Iroquois Indians sign a treaty (7 stat. 15) ceding much of their lands in New York, Pennsylvania, and west of the Ohio River, and reestablish peace after the Revolutionary War. The treaty signed at Fort Stanwix, near modern Rome, New York, is repudiated by most of the Iroquois.

1785: Boats carrying seventy soldiers, under the leadership of Captain Walter Finney, land at the juncture of the Great Miami and the Ohio Rivers. They build a fort here called Fort Finney.

1790: Little Turtle and his Miami followers fight with Josiah Harmar and his 300 soldiers and 1,200 militia while they are attempting to ford the Wabash near modern Fort Wayne, Indiana. The Americans sustain more than 200 killed and wounded. This is a part of what is called “Little Turtle’s War.”

1804: Lewis and Clark visit a Sioux war party.

1829: According to some sources, gold is found in Cherokee territory.

1859: The "Camp on Pawnee Fork", which eventually becomes Fort Larned, is established in Kansas. The military base is established to protect travelers on the Santa Fe Trail from "hostile Indians." The fort is abandoned almost twenty years later.

1864: General James Charlatan issues General Order #32 to Colonel Christopher "Kit" Carson. Carson is ordered to proceed from New Mexico, along the Canadian River, into the panhandle of Texas. He is to find, and "punish" the Comanches, and Kiowas, who have been raiding in the area. Carson’s force includes 335 soldiers and seventy-four Ute and Apache Indians, led by Ute Chief Kaniatze.

1874: J.J. Saville is the agent at the Red Cloud Agency Reservation. He has some workers cut down a tree in preparations to make a flagpole. When the bare tree is laid down at the agency headquarters, some Indians ask its purpose. The Indians protest the idea of a flag flying at the agency. They say it is a symbol of the army, and they do not like it. Saville is not moved by the Indians' complaints.

1877: Settlers fight a group of Indians near Flat Rocks, Texas. According to army documents, one settler is killed.

1878: Major George Ilges and 7th Infantry soldiers from Fort Benton, in northern Montana, capture a group of thirty-five "half-breed" British Canadian Indians trespassing in Montana.

1890: Catherine Weldon leaves Standing Rock Agency.

1895: According to the Oklahoma Law Enforcement Memorial, a group of U S Indian officers go to the Quapaw Reservation to evict members of a family who had been removed once but returned. As the officers approach the house, Amos Vallier, a friend with the family, opens fire on the officers with a shotgun, killing  Officer Joe Big Knife.

1955: An election has been authorized to adopt an amended Constitution and By-Laws for the Hualapai Tribe of the Haulapai Reservation in Arizona by the Assistant Secretary of the Interior. It is approved by a vote of 90 to 17.

1985: An election approves Amendments XVI and XVII to the Constitution and Bylaws of the Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin.

October 23

1518: Diego de Velásquez, the governor of Cuba, ,appoints Hernán Cortés "captain-general" of an expedition to Mexico.

1823: According to Cherokee records, Creek Chief William McIntosh, representing United States Indian commissioners, attempts to bribe Cherokee leaders. McIntosh offers $12,000 to Chief John Ross, Chief Charles Hicks, and Council Clerk Alexander McCoy to cede Cherokees lands to the United States. The Cherokee leaders refuse the offer with a show of indignation.

1826: The Miami sign a treaty (7 stat. 300) on the Wabash. The Americans are represented by Lewis Cass, James Ray and John Tipton.

1834: The Miami sign a treaty (7 stat. 458) on the Wabash. The Americans are represented by William Marshall.

1862: Pro-Union Delaware and Shawnee warriors attack the Wichita agency.

1864: Sioux Indians and Captain Pell parley at Fort Dill.

1866: Elements of the 2nd Cavalry fight some Indians on the North Fork of the Platte River near Fort Sedgwick, Colorado. Two soldiers are wounded, four Indians are killed, and seven are wounded, according to army records.

1868: In a skirmish at Fort Zarah, near present-day Great Bend in central Kansas, two Indians and two whites are killed.

1869: Following a group of "hostiles,” troopers enter the Miembres Mountains in New Mexico Territory. During a fight, three Indians are killed and three are wounded. Only one soldier is injured.

1874: This morning, a bunch of Sioux take axes to the stripped tree that Red Cloud Agency Agent J.J. Saville has planned as a flagpole. The Indians do not want a flag on their reservation. When Saville gets no help from Indian leaders to stop the choppers, he sends a worker to get help from Fort Robinson in northwest Nebraska. As the two dozen soldiers from the fort are riding toward the agency, a large group of angry Sioux surrounds them. They try to instigate a fight. Suddenly, the Sioux police, led by Young Man Afraid of His Horses, ride up and form a cordon around the soldiers. The Sioux police escort the soldiers to the agency stockade, averting a possible fight. Many Sioux are frustrated by the events, and leave the reservation.

1874: Indians fight with soldiers from the 5th Cavalry and some Indians scouts near the Old Pueblo Fork of the Little Colorado River in Arizona. According to army documents, sixteen Indians are killed and one is captured.

1876: Having surrounded Red Cloud and Red Leaf's camp last night, Colonel Ranald MacKenzie, and eight troops of cavalry approach the camp after daybreak. The Indians surrender without a fight near Camp Robinson, Nebraska.. The camp has 400 warriors, and numerous women and children.

1877: Miles and the Nez Perce arrive at Fort Keogh.

1878: Dull Knife and his Cheyenne followers are en route to the Red Cloud Agency to get some food from Red Cloud's people. A sudden snowstorm hits them. Out of the snow comes Captain J.B. Johnson and Troops B, and D, 3rd Cavalry. After a brief parlay, the 149 Northern Cheyenne, including Dull Knife, Old Crow, and Wild Hog. surrender near Fort Robinson in northwestern Nebraska. Little Wolf, fifty-three men, and eighty-one women and children have recently split  from Dull Knife. They manage to avoid the soldiers and escape into the Sand Hills. While Dull Knife's people are marched to Fort Robinson, they hide most of their best weapons. They only give up their old rifles and guns. (Photo: http://americanindian.net/2003p.html)

1953: Orme Lewis, Assistant Secretary of the Interior, ratifies a Constitution and Bylaws approved by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation Of Oregon in an election held on August 8, 1953.

1978: The Area Director, Aberdeen Area Office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, authorizes an election to amend the Revised Constitution and By-Laws for the Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota. The election takes place on November 7, 1978.

October 24

1778: From today until December 3, 1786, Domingo Cabello y Robles serves as Governor of Texas. During his term, he arranges a peace with the Comanche.

1785: U.S. representatives attempt to hold a treaty conference with the Creek. Few Indians attend the meeting.

1801: The Chickasaw Natchez Trace Treaty (7 stat. 65) is endorsed by the Chickasaw at Chickasaw Bluffs. The United States gets the right to make a road from the Mero District in Tennessee, to Natchez in Mississippi, for a payment of $700 in goods. Seventeen Indians sign the treaty.

1804: The Cherokee sign a treaty at Wafford's Settlement in the Tellico Garrison (7 stat.228). The Cherokees cede the area known as "Wafford's Settlement." The Cherokee receive $5,000 now, and $1,000 annually. The treaty is signed by Return Meigs for the United States, and by ten Cherokees.

1805: Lewis and Clark meet the Echeloots. The explorers are impressed by the Echeloot's wooden homes.

1816: The Treaty of Fort Stephens (7 stat. 152) signed with the Choctaw pay them $16,000 a year, for twenty years, for lands between the Alabama and the Tombigbee Rivers in Alabama.

1832: A treaty (7 stat. 391) is signed at Castor Hill, the home of William Clark, with the Kickapoos. They cede their southwestern Missouri lands for land in Kansas near Fort Leavenworth.

1834: According to government records, as part of a conference at Fort King, Florida to relocate the Seminoles, Chief Charlie Emathla gives a speech. He says they have a treaty which allows them to stay where they were for twenty years. Only thirteen years have passes at the time of the conference

1840: Colonel John Moore with ninety Texans and twelve "friendly" Lipan Indians, come upon a Comanche village on the Red Fork of the Colorado River in central Texas. The Texans sneak up on the village and attack. According to the Texans, 148 Comanches are killed and thirty-four are captured. Only one Texan dies. The Texans also seize almost 500 horses. The village is burned.

1858: According to some sources, Lieutenant Howland and soldiers from Fort Deliverance capture Navajo Chief Terribio and twenty other Navajos.

1862: A fight takes place in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) near Fort Cobb. Pro-Union Comanches, Kickapoos, Kiowas and Shawnees attack the Indian agency. Then they strike the nearby Tonkawa village. Chief Plácido and 137 of the 300 other Tonkawas are killed in the fighting.

1871: Indians skirmish with a group of soldiers from the Third Cavalry near Horseshoe Canyon, Arizona, according to official army records. One civilian is killed, and one soldier is wounded.

1874: Major G.W. Schofield, and three troops from the 10th Cavalry charge a village on Elk Creek in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). The "hostiles" surrender under a flag of truce. Sixty-nine warriors, and 250 women and children are taken into custody. Almost 2,000 horses are recovered.

1924: An order is issued which modifies the Jicarilla Apache lands opened for settlement. The order lasts until March 5, 1927.

1936: An election for a proposed Constitution and Bylaws for the Hopi Tribe is held. The results are 651 to 104 in favor according to the Constitution itself.

1936: An election for a proposed Constitution and Bylaws for the Yavapai-Apache Tribe is held. The results are 86 to 0 in favor.

1963: An election for an amendment to the Constitution for the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe is held. The vote is 750 to 194 in favor.

October 25

1755: After the October 16 attack on Penn's Creek village in Snyder County, Pennsylvania, a group of men go to the area to bury the dead. The Delaware who attacked the village also attack this group, killing several people in the process.

1764: Colonel Henry Bouquet has led a force of more than 1,500 soldiers into Ohio looking for captives of the recent wars and hostile Indians. Near modern Coshocton, Ohio, local Indians deliver over 200 prisoners to Bouquet. Many of the smaller children do not wish to leave their “adopted” Indian parents.

1805: The Cherokee sign a treaty with Return Meigs on the Duck River at Tellico, covering land north of the Tennessee River in Kentucky and Middle Tennessee (7 Stat. 93).

1841: The Cherokee Council outlaws spirituous liquors.

1853: Captain John Gunnison, and eight others with the Pacific Railroad surveying along the 38th parallel, are killed during a fight with Paiute Indians in the Sevier River valley of Utah. The Paiute hunting party of twenty are led by Moshoquop. Moshoquop's father had been killed by other whites only days before. The Mormons and the Paiutes have been fighting for some time. Some sources put this fight on October 26th.

1862: The Tonkawas are living on a reservation in the Washita River in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), after having been removed from a reservation on the Brazos River, in Texas. The Tonkawas have earned the enmity of other tribes because they act as scouts for the army. Delaware, Shawnee, and Caddo Indians attack the Tonkawa village.137 of the 300 Tonkawas are killed in the raid. Some sources say the Comanche, Kiowa and Wichita are also involved.

1867: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near Truxell Springs, Arizona. One Indian is killed.

1868: Major E.A. Carr, and Troops A, B, F, H, I, L, and M, Fifth Cavalry, encounter a large group of Indians on Beaver Creek in Kansas. According to Carr, only one soldier is wounded while thirty Indians are killed during the fighting. The Indians also lose about 130 ponies. The fight lasts two days.

1872: Indians skirmish with a group of soldiers from the 5th Cavalry Infantry in the Santa Maria Mountains and on Sycamore Creek in Arizona, according to official army records. Nine Indians are killed in the fighting which lasts until November 3rd.

1878: Dull Knife and his 150 Cheyenne reach Fort Robinson in northwestern Nebraska and surrender to Major Caleb Carlton. After Carlton is replaced by Captain Henry Wessells, Dull Knife discovers his Cheyenne will be returned to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). They refuses to leave voluntarily, and Dull Knife says he would rather die than leave his homeland. The camp commander locks them in a barrack and slowly tries to get their cooperation by cutting off their provisions. This method does not work (see January 9, 1879).

1890: Sitting Bull pays his last visit to Standing Rock Agency.

1910: The Rancheria for the Tuolumne Band of Me-Wok Indians is deeded, according to their constitution.

1949: By Presidential Proclamation #2860, the Effigy Mounds in Iowa are designated a National Monument.

October 26

1676: Indian fighter Nathaniel Bacon dies.

1809: The Wea Indians sign a treaty (7 stat. 116) at Vincennes, Indiana.

1832: Marks Crume, John Davis, and Jonathan Jennings, representing the United States, and Potawatomi Indians sign a treaty (7 stat. 394) at Tippecanoe. For $20,000 annually and $30,000 worth of supplies, the Indians give up large sections of land.

1832: The Shawnees and Delaware sign a treaty (7 stat. 397) at Castor Hill, William Clark's home. They cede their land at Cape Girardeau for land in Kansas.

1853: Captain John Gunnison and eight others in the Pacific Railroad survey along the 38th parallel are killed during a fight with Paiute Indians in the Sevier River valley of Utah. The Paiute hunting party of twenty are led by Moshoquop. Moshoquop's father has been killed by other whites only days before. The Mormons and the Paiutes have been fighting for some time. Some sources put this fight on October 25th. The is sometimes considered a part of the “Walker War.”

1866: Members of the 1st Cavalry fight some Indians near Lake Albert, Oregon. Two soldiers are wounded, fourteen Indians are killed, and seven are captured, according to army records

1867: According to army records, members of the 2nd Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near Shell Creek, Dakota Territory. No one is reported injured in the skirmish.

1867: According to army records, members of the 1st and 8th Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near Camp Winfield Scott, Nevada. Three Indians are reported killed and four are captured.

1868: The Beaver Creek, Kansas fight concludes, while in Central City, New Mexico, three citizens are killed by Indians.

1876: Pierre Falcon, Metis singer, songwriter, dies.

1877: Chief Joseph's "I will fight no more" speech is first printed.

1880: At the Mescalero Agency in Fort Stanton Reservation in southern New Mexico, seven Apache men and seventeen women and children surrender.

1882: The Navy shells the Tlingits.

October 27

1795: Spain sign the San Lorenzo Treaty with the United States. The treaty allows American boats to use the Mississippi River in Spanish Territory. It also confirms the northern boundary of the Spanish Territories as the 31st parallel. The Spanish are required to abandon all forts and lands north of that line. Both countries agree to "control" the Indians within their boundaries.

1804: Lewis and Clark reach the Mandans.

1805: As a part of the Cherokee treaty (7 stat. 95) land at "Southwest Point" (near modern Kingston, Tennessee),  is ceded. They also cede the first island of the Tennessee River. It is officially given up later on January 7, 1806. This treaty is signed at Tellico.

1832: The Peoria, Lahokia, Michigamea, Tamaroa, and Kaskaskia Indians sign a treaty (7 stat. 403) at Castor Hill, William Clark's home. They swap their Illinois lands for land in Kansas.

1832: The Potawatomi Indians sign a treaty (7 stat. 399) on the Tippecanoe River.

1837: After helping to lead a large group of Seminoles out of a relocation camp in Tampa Bay, Chief Osceola is pursued by American forces under General Thomas Jesup. Today, while operating under direct orders of General Jesup, soldiers invite Osceola to talk under a white flag of truce. When Osceola joins them, he is taken captive. This is also reported to have happened, in some sources, on October 21st.

1837: The second group of emigrating Cherokees reaches Nashville, Tennessee. A few of the Cherokee leaders in this group visit President Jackson, who is visiting the area. They leave the next day.

1867: After several delays, 500 Cheyenne warriors storm down on the Medicine Lodge Creek conference. After speeches on both sides, it becomes apparent the whites want all of the land north of the Arkansas River.

1875: Troop H, 5th Cavalry, under Captain J.M. Hamilton from Fort Wallace in western Kansas, attack a group of Indians near Smoky Hill River, Kansas. During the fight, two Indians are reported killed and one soldier is wounded.

1876: According to army reports, 2000 Indian men, women, and children from 400 lodges surrender to Colonel Nelson Miles on the Big Dry River in Montana.

1879: Captain Morrow follows Victorio and his Warm Springs Apaches into Mexico. Twelve miles from the Corralitos River in the Guzman Mountains, Morrow attacks. One army scout is killed, and two are wounded. Being low on food, and water, Morrow withdraws to Fort Bayard in southwestern New Mexico.

1948: In 1905, a large part of the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming occupied by the Shoshone and Arapaho tribes is ceded to the United States. They get a small part of that land back, according to Federal Register Number 13FR08818.

1952: The Federal Government is going to build the Yellowtail Dam and Reservoir on a large part of the Crow Indian Reservation in Wyoming. The land is condemned.

1970: The Pit River Indians engage in a skirmish with local law enforcement in Burney, California.

1973: The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Interior has authorized an election to approve an amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida. Amendment III is approved by a vote of 44 to 8, Amendment IV is approved 39 to 13, Amendment V is approved 42 to 10.

1986: The Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment, Act of 1986 (100 Stat. 3207-137) is passed. It is intended to “develop a comprehensive, coordinated attack upon the illegal narcotics traffic in Indian country and the deleterious impact of alcohol and substance abuse upon Indian tribes and their members; provide direction and guidance to program managers; modify or supplement existing programs; provide authority and opportunity for tribal participation in program management.”

October 28

1815: The Kansa Indians conclude a treaty (7 stat.137) at St. Louis. The United States is represented by Auguste Chouteau and Ninian Edwards.

1851: The San Saba Treaty is signed at the Council Grounds between the “United Sates, of the one part, and the undersigned chiefs counsellors and head men of the Comanches, Lapans, & Mucalaroes tribes.”

1852: Fort Chadbourne is established in west Texas near modern Bronte. It was designed to protect the local settlers and the Butterfield Stage from the local Comanches.

1861: The Cherokee National Assembly declares war on the United States of America. They have signed a treaty with the Confederated States of America.

1863: The Cherokee Capital is located in Tahlequah, Indian Territory (modern Oklahoma). The Cherokee Nation has been divided by the American Civil War. Stand Watie supports the Confederacy. He and his followers burn down the Capital buildings.

1865: The Upper Yanktonai Sioux (14 stat.743) and the Oglala Sioux (7 stat.747) sign treaties with the United States.

1867: The Cheyenne and Arapaho Sign a treaty with the United States (15 stat.593). The treaty affected approximately 2,250 Cheyennes and 2,000 Arapahos.

1869: While scouting the country surrounding the Brazos River in Texas, 41st Infantry Lieutenant George E. Albee and two enlisted men encounter a group of eleven "hostile Indians", according to army records. During the subsequent fighting, Albee's group drives the Indians from the area. Albee wins the Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions. Army records also indicate that members of the 4th and 9th Cavalries, 24th Infantry and some Indians scouts fight with a band of Indians near the headwaters of the Brazos River in Texas. Fifty Indians are killed, and seven are captured. Eight soldiers are wounded. The fighting lasts through tomorrow.

1869: Army records indicate that settlers fight with a band of Indians in the Miembres Mountains of New Mexico. One soldier and three Indians are wounded. Three Indians are killed in the fighting.

1873: Indians fight with soldiers from the 5th Cavalry, the 23rd Infantry and some Indian scouts in the Mazatzal Mountains, Sycamore Springs and the Sunflower Valley in Arizona, according to army documents. Twenty-five Indians are killed and six are captured. The fighting lasts through the 30th.

1874: Twenty warriors, their families, and livestock, surrender to soldiers  in southern Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), after being pursued for several days by Captain Carpenter and troops from the 10th Cavalry. According to army documents, in total, 391 Indians are captured in this expedition led by Lt. Colonel J.W. Davidson, which lasts until November 8th.

1880: Tenth Cavalry soldiers fight a group of Indians near Ojo Caliente, Texas. According to army documents, five soldiers are killed.

1932: The mineral rights sales ban for the Papago Reservation is canceled.

1992: According to the Osage Constitution, the United States District Court of the Northern District of Oklahoma rules on the case of Fletcher vs. U.S. (90-C-248-E). The ruling allows for members of the Osage Nation to hold an election on the adoption of a constitution. A constitution is adopted on February 4, 1994 by a vote of 1931 to 1013.

October 29

373: Maya leader Bahlum-Kuk performs his accession ritual at Palenque, Mexico.

1712: Settlers in Portsmouth, New Hampshire hold a conference to advise belligerent Indians that "Queen Anne's War" is over, and the fighting should stop. It takes almost nine months before a local treaty is signed.

1804: Lewis and Clark hold a council with the Mandans.

1805: Lewis and Clark meet the Chilluckittequaw Chief and medicine man.

1832: The Piankashaw, and Wea Indians conclude a treaty (7 stat. 410) at Castor Hill, William Clark's home. They receive land in Kansas, in exchange for their lands in Illinois, and Missouri.

1837: 1600 Creeks under Lieutenant T.P. Sloan leave New Orleans on three steamboats.

1853: Alabama Chief Antone, several subchiefs, and leading citizens of Polk County submit a petition to the Texas Legislature. The petition requests that lands in the area be set aside as a reservation for the tribe. The Legislature sets aside 1,110.7 acres.

1869: Army records indicate that members of the Fourth and Ninth Cavalry, Twenty-Fourth Infantry and some Indians scouts fight with a band of Indians near the headwaters of the Brazos River in Texas. Fifty Indians are killed, and seven are captured. Eight soldiers are wounded. The fighting started yesterday.

1874: Indians fight with soldiers from the 5th Cavalry near Cave Creek, Arizona. According to army documents, eight Indians are killed and five are captured.

1880: According to army reports, almost fifty of Victorio's Indians attack twelve 10th Cavalry troopers near Ojo Caliente, Texas. Four soldiers are killed. The Indians escape into Mexico.

1926: Bannock Chief Race Horse, also known as Racehorse and John Racehorse, Sr., dies. He is one of the Bannock representative in the law suit over the Fort Bridger Treaty which went to the U.S. Supreme Court.

1935: The Secretary of the Interior authorizes an election for a constitution for the Indians of the Tulalip Tribes in Washington.

1949: The land needed to make the Garrison Dam is ceded from the Fort Berthold Reservation by an Act of Congress (63 Stat. 1026).

October 30

1763: Pontiac informs Major Henry Gladwin, Commander at Fort Detroit, that he wants peace, and to end the fighting.

1804: The Mandans like Lewis and Clark's men's dancing.

1833: Captain Page and 1000 Choctaws arrive in Memphis. Some use ferries; others march to Rock Roe, in Arkansas, the next leg of their journey.

1866: Elements of the 23rd Infantry fight some Indians near Malheur County, Oregon. Two Indians are killed, three are wounded and eight are captured, according to army records

1868: Indians attack Grinnell Station, Kansas. One Indian is wounded.

1868: Army records indicate that members of the 2nd Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near the White Woman’s Fork of the Republican River in Kansas. The fighting lasts until October 30th. Two Indians are killed, and three are wounded

1870: Indians attack a wagon train eighteen miles from Fort Stanton, in southern New Mexico Territory. They stampede fifty-nine mules. Cavalry eventually pursue them 259 miles, destroy their village, recover the mules, and capture three Indians.

1873: Indians fight with soldiers from the 5th Cavalry, the 23rd Infantry and some Indian scouts in the Mazatzal Mountains, Sycamore Springs and the Sunflower Valley in Arizona, according to army documents. Twenty-five Indians are killed, and six are captured. The fighting started on the 28th.

1873: Indians fight with soldiers from the 8th Cavalry near Pajarit Springs, New Mexico, according to army documents. Eighteen Indians are captured.

1876:  By Executive Order, President Grant revokes the White Mountain-San Carlos (Chiricahua) Reserve. The area bounded by Dragoon Springs to Peloncillo Mountain Summit to New Mexico to Mexico revert to the public domain. The reserve is established on December 14, 1872.

1937: An election for the adoption of a Constitution and Bylaws for the Stockbridge Munsee Community of Wisconsin is held. The results are 119 for, 13 against.

1939: The Miami Indians of Oklahoma's Constitution is ratified.

1976: The Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Morris Thompson, has authorized an election to approve a Constitution and By-Laws for the Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma. It is approved by a vote of 35 to11.

1990: The law denying Indians the right to speak their own language, under certain circumstances, is repealed.

1991: Executive Order 6368, by President George Bush declares November as National American Indian Heritage Month, 1991.

October 31

1755: Today sees the beginning of a raid by almost 100 Delaware and Shawnees against settlers in Fulton and Franklin Counties, Pennsylvania. Over the next several days, Indian attacks along Conolloway Creek and adjoining areas, killing or capturing half of the 100 settlers. "King" Shingas, of the Delaware, led the raids.

1799: William Augustus Bowles, the self-proclaimed "Director General and Commander-In-Chief of the Muskogee Nation" issues a proclamation. He states that the Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1795 is null and void because it covers ancestral Indian lands. Spain and the United States have no right to trade sovereignty over lands which belong to others.

1804: Clark (of Lewis and Clark) has a council with the Mandan Grand Chief.

1818: According to the U.S. Army, today marks the end of First Seminole War

1833: President Jackson sends Francis Scott Key to Alabama to investigate the Owen affair and to assist in the defense of the soldiers (see October 14th).

1855: Soldiers from Fort Lane in southwestern Oregon fight Rogue River Indians at Hungry Hill, Oregon.

1858: General Harney pronounces that the interior is now open to settlers.

1869: The soon-to-be-named Lieutenant Governor of the Northwest Territory of Canada, William McDougall, receives a letter from the National Council of the Metis. They tell him he cannot enter this area without their permission.

1869: Army records indicate that members of the 1st and 8th Cavalries fight with a band of Indians in the Chiricahua Mountains of Arizona. Two Indians are killed.

1871: Delshay, of the Tonto Apaches, meets with Captain W.N. Netterville in Sunflower Valley to discuss a peace treaty. Delshay says he wants peace, but he wants both sides to live up to their promises, which  whites seldom do. Delshay agrees to meet the Peace Commissioner, Vincent Colyer, at Camp McDowell near Phoenix, Arizona, on November 12, 1879. But Colyer never responds to Delshay's meeting proposal, so no peace is made.

1874: Indians fight with soldiers from the 9th Cavalry Infantry near Fort Sill, Indian Territory. According to army documents, one Indian is killed during this engagement which started on October 4th.

1876: Hunkpapa Sioux go to Fort Peck.

1877: The Nez Perce start the boat trip to Fort Lincoln.

1879: After the Standing Bear trial, where it is ruled the government cannot force an Indian to stay in any one reservation against their will, Big Snake decides to test the law. He asks for permission to leave his reservation to visit Standing Bear. His request is denied. He eventually leaves his Ponca Reservation to go to the Cheyenne Reservation, also in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Big Snake is returned to the Ponca Reservation when General Sherman decides the Standing Bear ruling applies only to Standing Bear. Big Snake makes the Ponca Agent, William Whiteman, very angry. Whiteman orders Big Snake arrested. Today, Big Snake is arrested and charged with threatening Whiteman. In Whiteman's office, after denying any such actions, Big Snake refuses to go with the soldiers there to arrest him. A struggle develops, and Big Snake is shot and killed.

1880: Spotted Eagle and Rain in the Face surrender at Fort Keogh.

1887: Fort Logan is established in what would become Denver, Colorado.

1923: The “Treaty Between His Majesty the King and the Chippewa Indians of Christian Island, Georgia Island and Rama” is signed in Canada.

 

Dates reprinted with permission by Phil Konstantin: http://americanindian.net/index.html

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