this month in Native American History
by Phil Konstantin
Special Extended Edition

MAT-MENI: ACORN BREAD MOON
Foothill Maidu Tribe
(September)

September 1

504: Maya Queen "Lady of Tikal" is born. 

1640: A treaty agreement covering land cessions between the Mohegans and Connecticut is reached.

1675: According to some sources, a group of Indians stages an attack on the village of Hadley, Massachusetts. According to local legend, a man unknown to the village rushes into the church and rallies the settlers to defeat the Indians. After the fighting, the man disappears. Other sources say there was no battle, just a call to arms. Other sources say nothing of any note happened on this date in Hadley.

1776: On July 20, 1776, Chickamauga warriors attack Eaton Station, Tennessee. Based on this attack, a force of more than 2,000 militia and some Catawba Indians, led by General Griffith Rutherford, march into the Tennessee mountains. While they only kill a dozen Cherokee warriors, they destroy most of the Cherokee villages in Tennessee and South Carolina.

1788: Even after the Treaty of Hopewell, whites continue to settle on Cherokee lands along the Holston and French Broad Rivers. Congress issues a proclamation prohibiting whites from settling on Cherokee lands.

1813: A Creek war party attacks several farms near Fort Sinquefield, Alabama. They kill several of the settlers. One woman, Sarah Merrill, left for dead by the Creeks, staggers through the woods for miles carrying her baby, also left for dead. Her ordeal sparks additional fury among the local Americans.

1826: Today is the Creeks’ deadline to go west from their lands east of the Mississippi River.

1830: After discussing President Jackson's removal proposal, Chickasaw leaders sign a provisional agreement to be removed. Several of the Chiefs present are offered additional lands. The treaty never goes into effect because it is based on the premise that the Chickasaws share lands with the Choctaws. The Choctaws do not agree to give up their Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) lands.

1845: Tired of the continuing feud between the "Old Settlers" and the "New Emigrants" factions of the Cherokee Nation, fifty-four Cherokee families leave the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) reservation to join relatives in Texas.

1858: Colonel George H. Wright and 600 men battle 500 Coeur d’Alene, and allies at the Battle of Four Lakes, in western Washington. Equipped with rifled barrels and new ammunition, Wright's men kill five dozen Indians while suffering no mortal wounds themselves. They fight another battle on the Spokane Plains, in Washington, on the fifth.

1866: Manuelito and twenty-three of his Navajo followers surrender to the army at Fort Wingate.

1868: Stage Agent J.H. Jones, of Lake Station, Colorado, reports to the military that a woman and child are killed and scalped by Indians near the station. According to military reports, three people are killed, and three people are wounded near Reed Springs. In Spanish Fort, Texas, four people are killed, eight people scalped, and three women "outraged" by Indians. One of the women is "outraged" by thirteen Indians, who later scalp and kill her, and her four small children.

1868: Army records indicate that settlers fight with a band of Indians near Lake Station, Colorado. Two settlers are killed, wounded, and captured.

1868: Army records indicate that three settlers are killed and three are wounded in a fight with a band of Indians near Reed's Springss, Colorado.

1871: Indians skirmish with a group of soldiers from the Ninth Cavalry and the Twenty-Fourth Infantry near Fort McKavett, Texas, according to official army records. No casualties are reported.

1880: Ninth Cavalry and Fifteenth Infantry soldiers fight a group of Indians near Aqua Chiquita in the Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico. According to army documents, two soldiers are killed.

1881: Apaches attack Fort Apache, in eastern Arizona. They are upset because Colonel Eugene Carr has tried to arrest an Apache shaman. The medicine man is killed in a fight two days ago.

1911: Executive Order number 1406 is issued. This sets aside certain lands in New Mexico "for the benefit of the Indians of the Jemez Pueblo."

1965: An election for an amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Moapa Band of Paiute Indians is authorized by Assistant Secretary of the Interior, Harry Anderson. The election is held on November 20th.

September 2

579: Maya King Scroll Serpent ascends to the throne of Calukmal.

1732: The first treaty between the Iroquois Confederation, and the Pennsylvania Provincial Council is signed in Philadelphia. The parties agree to peaceful relations between them. The Iroquois also promise to try to persuade the Shawnees to leave Allegheny Valley. The Principal Indian Chief present is Shikellamy of the Onondaga.

1777: Settlers have built a sizable stockade in Wheeling, Virginia (now West Virginia). The area is the scene of several skirmishes during the next several weeks. A force of 200 Mingo and Wyandot warriors lay in wait outside the stockade. A few Indians lure a small force of fifteen militia out of the fort into the woods. Here the trap is sprung, and most of the soldiers are killed. A relief force of thirteen soldiers attempts a rescue. They are attacked as well. A total of fifteen soldiers are killed, while only one Indian sustains a fatal injury.

1779: General John Sullivan, and his force of 4,500 men continue their attacks on Indians in New York who he suspects are British Allies. His forces level Catherine's Town.

1815: In Portage des Sioux, William Clark, Auguste Chouteau, Ninian Edwards make a peace treaty (7 stat. 130) with the Kickapoos for the war of 1812.

1838: The Republic of Texas signs a treaty with the Kichai, Taovaya, Tawakoni, and Wacos in modern Fannin County.

1838: Lydia Paki Kamekeha Liliuokalani,  the last sovereign Queen of Hawai'i, is born.

1844: Tonight in Wilmington, Delaware, Cherokee Principal Chief John Ross gets married to Mary B. Stapler.

1862: Santee Sioux engage in another fight in the Minnesota Uprising. Called the “Birch Coulee Battle,” it happens three miles north of Morton, Minnesota. The Minnesota forces are led by Major Joseph Brown. The Sioux are led by Big Eagle, Mankato, and Red Legs. The army has been on a burial detail. At dawn, the Sioux attack. The soldiers lose thirteen killed and forty-seven wounded.

1868: Sergeant George J. Dittoe, Company A, Third Infantry, and four soldiers are transporting a wagon along Little Coon Creek, when they are attacked by about three dozen Indians. Three of the soldiers are seriously wounded, while three Indians are killed and one wounded. One soldier goes to Fort Dodge, in southwestern Kansas, for help. Lieutenant Thomas Wallace, Third Infantry, and troops respond to relieve Sergeant Dittoe's men, and chase off the Indians. One of the four soldiers, Corporal Leander Herron, is awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his part in the action.

1875: Indians fight with soldiers from the Third Cavalry along the North Platte River north of Sidney, Nebraska. According to army documents, no casualties are reported in this encounter which started on August 28th.

1876: The Nez Perce tell settlers they have one week to leave their lands.

1877: Victorio flees the San Carlos Reservation.

1948: An Adoption Ordinance for the Coeur d’Alene Tribe as been passed by the Tribal Council. It is approved by the Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs.

1958: An official tribal roll is listed for the Lower Brule Sioux Tribe of the Lower Brule Reservation. Every: Acoma Pueblo festival.

September 3

523: Maya King Ahkal Mo' Naab' II is born. Eventually, he rules over Palenque, Mexico.

1680: Don Antonio de Otermin is the Governor of the province which contains modern Santa Fe, New Mexico. The Pueblo Indians staged a revolt in August. Otermin enters Isleta Pueblo and discovers it is abandoned.

1719: Frenchman Bernard de la Harpe, discovers an Indian village on the Arkansas River, near Muskogee. La Harpe has traveled up the Red River, then gone overland across Oklahoma. He describes the land as fertile, and the people (probably a Caddoan tribe) as friendly, and hard working. La Harpe claims the land for France.

1783: The Treaty of Paris is signed.

1822: The Sac and Fox sign a treaty (7 stat. 223) at Fort Armstrong dealing with lands in Wisconsin and Illinois.

1836: The 2300 Creek prisoners reach Fort Gibson in eastern Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Approximately eighty-one Creeks die during the journey from Alabama.

1836: Colonel Henry Dodge, and the Menominee Indians sign a peace treaty (7 stat. 506) at Cedar Point, Wisconsin. In exchange for an annuity of $20,000, the Menominee cede most of their lands along the Menominee, Wolf, and Wisconsin Rivers.

1855: Little Thunder has taken over as Chief after the killing of Conquering Bear in the fight with Lieutenant Grattan’s men. He has almost 250 warriors in his camp on the Blue River. General William S. Harney has 600 soldiers. After the fighting, there are 100 dead Sioux, and five dead soldiers, according to Harney. Harney takes seventy prisoners, almost all women and children. Based on his actions, the Sioux gives Harney the name "The Butcher".

1863: At Whitestone, General Alfred Sully, and 1,200 soldiers, attacks Inkpaduta's Santee Sioux village. 300 warriors are killed. 250 women and children are captured. Sully loses twenty-two soldiers in the fighting.

1868: According to Major Joseph Tilford, Seventh Cavalry, commander at Fort Reynolds, in southeastern Colorado, four people are killed by Indians, near Colorado City. Indians also attack the station at Hugo Springs, but are repelled by the occupants.

1907: In Oklahoma, Principal Chief of the Creek Nation, Pleasant Porter (Talof Harjo) dies.

1966: The Assistant Secretary of the Interior, Harry Anderson, has authorized an election for amendments to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin. The amendment is approved by a vote of 152 to 2.

September 4

698: As part of a series of attacks on neighboring cities in Guatemala, Maya warriors from Naranjo attack Ucanal.

1724: Indians attack Dunstable village in Maine. They take two captives.

1801: A two-day conference begins at Southwest Point, located at the juncture of the Tennessee and the Clinch Rivers. Representatives of the United States and the Cherokees discuss more roads through Cherokee lands. Because of a lack of enforcement by the United States of previous treaties, the Cherokees do not agree to any U.S. proposals.

1854: A peace treaty is signed with the Modocs of Tule Lake. They are out of supplies, by this time. The fighting started on August 18, 1854.

1863: The Concow-Maidu had ancestral homes in the Butte County area of northern California. Eventually, they were forced to move to different lands. Many die or are killed along the way to these distant, hostile places. One group of 461 Concows leaves Chico, but only 277 will survive the two-week trip to Round Valley.

1864: At Fort Lyon, Major E.W. Wynkoop holds a council with One Eye, Manimick, Cheyennes, one other Indian, and interpreter John S. Smith. Carrying a message written by George Bent, the Cheyenne and Arapaho agree to turn over any whites they hold as prisoners. Wynkoop will leave the fort to go meet the tribal leaders on September 6th.

1868: Army records indicate that members of the First and Eighth Cavalry, and Indian scouts, fight with a band of Indians near Tonto Creek, Arizona. One Indian is killed, and another is captured.

1872: Indians skirmish with a group of settlers near Camp Mojave, Arizona, according to official army records. One settler is killed.

1878: Colonel Nelson Miles, 150 men of the Fifth Infantry, and thirty-five Crow scouts, have been traveling up Clark's Fork of the Yellowstone, near Heart Mountain, looking for hostile Bannock Indians, reported to be in the area. The soldiers come up on a camp, and attacking the residents. Eleven Bannocks are killed, and thirty-one are captured. 200 horses and mules are seized. An interpreter, an Indian scout, and Captain Andrew Bennett are killed in the fighting. One soldier is wounded.

1879: Members of Captain Ambrose Hooker's Troop E, Ninth Cavalry, are guarding the cavalry horses near Ojo Caliente, New Mexico, when they are attacked by Indians. Eight soldiers are killed, and the Indians capture forty-six of the soldier's mounts. The dead soldiers are African-Americans. They are commonly referred to as "buffalo soldiers" by the Indians.

1882: At Whipple Barracks, General George Crook officially takes over command of the Department of Arizona. The veteran Indian fighter is brought in to deal with the Apaches.

1886: Geronimo, and thirty-eight of his followers, surrenders to General Nelson Miles at Skeleton Canyon south of Apache Pass in Arizona. Every: The St. Augustine feast is observed by many Pueblos.

September 5

523: Palenque Maya Lord Chaacal II is born according to the museum at Palenque.

1779: General John Sullivan's forces continue their attack on suspected pro-British forces in New York. They demolish Kendaia (Appletown).

1785: Georgians continue to trespass on Creek lands. Chief Alexander McGillivray writes Congress demanding that they protect his people from the settlers which previous treaties has promised.

1814: Today sees the start of the two day battle of Credit Island, near present day Davenport, Iowa. Major Zackary Taylor, and 334 American soldiers are making their way up the Mississippi River attacking British positions with considerable success. They encounter a force of 1000 Indians and British. The allied army forces Taylor to withdraw to safety in Saint Louis.

1836: A fifth group of "friendly" Creeks, numbering 1984, under command of Lieutenant J.T. Sprague, leave Tallassee (northwest of modern Tuskegee), for Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma).

1858: Colonel George Wright, commanding the local army, fights with the Coeur d’Alene, Columbia River, Colville, Kalispel and Spokane Indians on the Spokane Plains. The army defeats the Indians.

1862: Little Crow hears news of Big Eagle and Mankato's battle with Colonel Henry "Long Trader" Sibley's troops at Birch Coulee. They manage to bottle up the troops for an entire day, only cannon being brought up ends the fighting on the second day.

1865: Almost 1,000 Sioux, Cheyene and Arapaho fight with American forces under Colonel Cole at the Little Powder River.

1868: Indians steal five cattle at Hugo Springs Station. Later, they also attack and burn Willow Springs Station.

1868: According to army records, members of the Twenty-Third Infantry and some Indian scouts fight with a band of Indians in the Juniper Mountains of Idaho. During the campaign which started on August 8th, sixteen Indians are captured.

1869: Troops from Fort Stanton, in southern New Mexico chase a group of "hostiles.” During the ensuing fight, three Indians are killed, and seven are wounded. Two troopers are wounded.

1869: Army records indicate that members of the Eighth Cavalry and the Twelfth Infantry fight with a band of Indians near Camp Date Creek, Arizona. Three Indians are killed.

1871: The White Mountain Reservation is chosen as the site where the Apache Indians of Arizona can be "collected, fed, clothed...provided for, and protected." This decision is made by Vincent Colyer, Commissioner, Board of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior.

1871: Indians skirmish with a group of settlers in Chino Valley, Arizona, according to official army records. One settler is killed.

1877: Many sources say Crazy Horse is fatally wounded while in captivity at Fort Robinson, Nebraska.

1878: Bannocks fight with Howard's soldiers at Clark's Ford.

1968: The Assistant Commissioner of Indian Affairs authorizes an election for amendments to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin. The election is held on January 25, 1969.

1975: Morris Thompson, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs authorizes an election to approve a new Constitution and By-Laws for the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma.

September 6

1689: Two hundred Indian survivors of King Philip’s War have found refuge with the local Indians around Cochecho (modern Dover), New Hampshire. Boston wants the Indians back in Massachusetts. Local settlers have signed a treaty with the local Indians. In what local legend calls a mock battle, forces under Richard Walderne (Waldron) surround the local and refugee Indians. They remove the 200 refugees and march them back to Boston. In Boston, most of the Indians are killed or become slaves.

1823: Seventy Seminoles meet with peace commissioners from the United States. This is the first such efforts to reach an agreement with the Seminoles by the United States after having bought Florida from the Spanish in 1819. A treaty is signed on September 18th.

1839: A conference is held by both the "old settlers" and the "new emigrant" Cherokees in Tahlequah, Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). John Ross is elected Principal Chief of the newly rejoined Cherokee Nation. David Vann is elected Second Chief. A new constitution is adopted. The convention continues until October 10, 1839. Many "old settlers" disavow any actions taken by this convention. They believe that the old settler government is still in power.

1856: Cheyenne and Arapaho attack a wagon train of Mormons on the Platte River. Two men, a woman, and a child are killed. One woman is kidnapped during the fighting.

1861: A Yamparika Chief and another Comanche sign a treaty with Union representative at Fort Wise, Colorado.

1864: Fort Zarah, is established on Walnut Creek, near the Santa Fe Trail and the main Indian trail in the section of Kansas. The fort serves as a base of operations against "hostile Indians" until December 1869.

1864: Major Edward "Tall Chief" Wynkoop is the commander at Fort Lyon, southeastern Colorado. Black Kettle, and as many as 2200 Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Sioux are camped with him on Smoky Hill River. Black Kettle send outs messengers saying he will deliver white prisoners in exchange for Indian prisoners, and to discuss moving to the reservation. Wynkoop receives a copy of this message from One Eye, and Eagle Head. Hopelessly outnumbered, he has 127 soldiers, Wynkoop decides to go to the Smokey Hill camp to talk with Black Kettle. Wynkoop eventually takes the four white children held captive, and seven Chiefs, including Black Kettle, to Denver to discuss ways to end the fighting in Colorado.

1867: According to army records, members of the First Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near the Silver River in Oregon. One Indian is killed, and five are captured.

1868: Army records indicate that Indians attack settlers in several locations in "Colorado Territory." Twenty-five settlers die in the fighting between today and tomorrow.

1877: Army records show Crazy Horse died on the night of September 6th at Fort Robinson, Nebraska.

1967: Amendments are made to the Constitution of the Pawnee Indian Tribe of Oklahoma.

1967: Amendments to the Wisconsin Winnebago Constitution are approved by the U.S. Government.

1973: The Oklahoma Human Rights Commission requests state schools drop rules requiring Indian students to cut their long hair. They feel the rules will "promote racial friction and community divisiveness."

1978: The Anazasi ruins at Mesa Verde are declared a “World Heritage Site.”

September 7

1732: According to some sources, a land cession agreement is made by representatives of the Delaware Indians and Pennsylvania.

1778: Today through the 17th, the Shawnee attack Boonesborough. Captain Antoine Dagneaux de Quindre, with eleven soldiers, and 444 Shawnees, including Chief Blackfish (Chinugalla), demand the surrender of Boonesborough. Daniel Boone is commanding the sixty American sharpshooters in the fort. After losing thirty- five warriors to the Kentucky fighters, the Indians quit on the 20th. Boone's forces report only four men killed in the fighting. Some sources put the settlers' numbers at thirty men, and twenty young men, with a few women and children. The losses are also reported at thirty-seven Shawnee, and two settlers.

1831: Major Francis Armstrong is appointed Agent to the Choctaws in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). He assists in their move to the Indian Territory.

1849: Colonel J.M. Washington, with soldiers, and "friendly" Indians, confront the Navajos in Canyon de Chelly. Mariano Martinez, and Cahpitone, agree to return stolen property, and Mexican prisoners.

1850: The “Robinson Treaty with the Ojibewa Indians of Lake Superior Conveying Certain Lands to the Crown” is signed in Canada.

1862: Little Crow writes a letter to Colonel Henry Sibley. He explains why the fighting started, that he has white prisoners, and he wants to negotiate. Sibley's reply is to release the prisoners, and then they talk. Little Crow is concerned for the Santee's safety because he has heard Governor Alexander Ramsey wants the Santee dead or banished from Minnesota. Because Sibley has been a trader among the Indians, they call him "Long Trader.”

1868: The "Hon. Schuyler Colfax" telegraphs the army that twenty-five people have been killed, and a general uprising is going on in southern Colorado.

1880: Fourth Cavalry soldiers fight a group of Indians near Fort Cummings, New Mexico. According to army documents, one soldier is killed, and three are wounded.

1917: By Executive Order, President Woodrow Wilson "reserves from entry, sale or other disposal, and set aside for administrative purposes in connection with tribal grazing leases" 320 acres on the Crow Reservation in Montana.

1939: The Assistant Secretary of the Interior, Oscar Chapman, ratifies an election for a constitution and bylaws for the Port Gamble Band of Clallam Indians.

1957: An Act of Congress gives the Chilkat Indians mineral rights to their lands near Klukwan. They are one of only a very small number of Alaskans with this provision.

1968: The Indian Council Fire awards this year's Indian Achievement Award to Rev. Dr. Roe B. Lewis, of Phoenix, Arizona. Lewis, a Pima-Papago, is cited for his efforts in educational counseling for Indians.

1972: A decision is given which says North Dakota cannot tax Indians on reservation.

1979: The Acting Deputy Commission of Indian Affairs authorizes an election for a new constitution for the Skokomish Indian Tribe. The election is held on January 15, 1980.

September 8

1535: Cartier reaches Stadacone, where the modern city Quebec is located.

1565: Pedro Menendez de Aviles, accompanied by 1,500 soldiers and colonists establishes the town of St. Augustine, Florida. St. Augustine is the oldest constantly occupied European town in the United States. To secure his foothold in the area, de Aviles attacks the French settlements on the nearby St. Johns River.

1598: Juan de Oñate, and his nephew and second in command, Vincente de Zaldivar, complete, and dedicate a church called San Gabriel, north of present day Espanola, New Mexico. Other sources say the church is called San Juan Bautist.

1755: The Battle of Lake George is fought between French and Indian forces under the command of Ludwig August Dieskau and Mohawk war chief, King Hendrick, and British and Colonial troops under Sir William Johnson

1756: Colonel John Armstrong, leads approximately 300 Pennsylvania soldiers against the Delaware village of Kittanning, in retaliation for their attack on Fort Granville on July 30th. Delaware Chief, Captain Jacob, is trapped in his house. He is ordered to surrender, and he refuses. His house is set on fire, and he is burned to death. Armstrong estimates Delaware losses at 40 killed, and his own at 18. He recovers many English prisoners.

1779: General John Sullivan's force of 4500 men continue their retaliatory strikes against suspected pro-British Indian villages. They destroy Canadasaga, Kittanning and other nearby villages in New York.

1815: William Henry Harrison, Duncan McArthur, and John Graham, representing the United States, and the Delaware, Miami, Seneca, Shawnee, and Wyandot tribes signed a treaty (7 stat. 131) ending the warfare in the area. The treaty is signed near Detroit at Spring Wells, Michigan.

1865: A grand council of the formerly pro-Union, and pro-Confederacy Indians is held at Fort Smith, Arkansas. The newly appointed Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Dennis N. Cooley, chairs the meeting. Most of the Indians are told that they have forfeited their lands, and annuities by their traitorous support of the south. Each tribe has to plead its case for mercy.

1867: According to army records, members of the First Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near the Silver River in Oregon. Two soldiers are wounded. Twenty three Indians are killed, and fourteen are captured

1868: Captain Henry Bankhead, commander of Fort Wallace, reports twenty-five Indians killed and scalped two citizens near Sheridan (near modern Winona), Kansas. Indians also stole seventy-six horses and mules from Clark's wagon train on Turkey Creek.

1868: Lieutenant David Wallingford, Seventh Cavalry, arrives to help a wagon train of fifty men and thirty- five wagons, who have been fighting Indians for the last four days at Cimmaron Crossing. Two men have been killed, and the Indians escape with seventy-five head of cattle. Five miles to the west, the soldiers discover the remnants of another wagon train. Fifteen men in this train are burned to death.

1876: An army advance guard under Captain Miles captures American Horse and his band of Teton Sioux at Slim Buttes, South Dakota.

1872: Elements of Company E, Fifth Cavalry, are engaging "hostile Apaches" at Date Creek in Arizona. Sergeant Frank E. Hill manages to "secure the person of a hostile Apache Chief, although while holding the Chief he is severely wounded in the back by another Indian." For his actions, Hill will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

1877: Sixth Cavalry soldiers and some Indian scouts fight a group of Indians near the San Francisco River in New Mexico. According to army documents, twelve Indians are killed, and thirteen are captured. The fighting lasts through September 10th.

1880: At Fort Keogh, in eastern Montana, Big Road, and 200 Sioux surrender.

1883: In Bismarck, Dakota, the Northern Pacific Railroad celebrates the completion of their transcontinental railroad line. They invite Sitting Bull to make a speech to welcome the dignitaries at the celebration, as a representative of the Indians. Sitting Bull, speaking through an interpreter, instead says the whites are liars and thieves, and he hates all of them, while smiling throughout the entire speech. The shocked interpreter, a young army officer, delivers the planned speech, instead of Sitting Bull's real words. Sitting Bull is a great success, and receives a standing ovation. Railroad officials ask Sitting Bull to make additional speeches elsewhere based on his reception today.

1909: The confines of the Robinson Rancheria in California are modified.

1960: The United States Solicitor sends Senator Mike Mansfield a memo. The Solicitor has determined that county officials are not allowed to charge four Indians of the Flathead Reservation personal property taxes. The four men work for the Montana Power Company at the Federal Kerr Dam on the reservation. The county has tried to collect personal property taxes on the men because, while their job is on reservation land, it is not reservation related.

1970: The Ramah Chapter of Navajo Indians, in western New Mexico, establish their own independent school board after the local public school is closed.

1972: The Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, consisting of the Chippewa Indians of the White Earth, Leech Lake, Fond du Lac, Bois Forte (Nett Lake) and Grand Portage Reservations, vote to approve several amendments to their constitution by average margins of 1,500 to 300.

September 9

426: Yax K’uk Mo establishes a Maya dynesty at Copán, Honduras.

435: Maya King Casper ascends to the throne in Palenque, Mexico.

1598: Juan de Oñate summons the Chiefs from the local Pueblos, and makes them swear oaths of allegiance to god, and the King of Spain. New Mexico is divided into parishes by the Franciscans as well.

1836: Alexander Le Grand is appointed by Texas leader David Burnet as Indian Commissioner. He is charged with negotiating a peace treaty with the Comanches and the Kiowas.

1837: Seminole Chief Philip is captured. He, and a few family members, are transported to St. Augustine, Florida.

1849: The United States and the a few Navajo sign a treaty (9 stat.974). Mariano Martinez and Chapitone are among the Navajos who sign the treaty.

1850: The “Robinson Treaty with the Ojibewa Indians of Lake Huron Conveying Certain Lands to the Crown” is signed in Canada.

1850: The Navajo treaty (9 stat.974) signed on September 9, 1849 is ratified.

1868: Indians kill six people and burn a ranch between Fort Wallace and Sheridan (near modern Winona), western Kansas. The ranch house had been burned two weeks ago, and is rebuilt.

1868: Army records indicate that members of the Eighth Cavalry fight with a band of Indians on the Tonto Plateau in Arizona. Two Indians are killed, and four are captured.

1871: Cherokee leader Stand Waite dies.

1872: When Lone Wolf is asked to go to Washington to discuss the Government's plans for the Kiowa's Reservation, he insists that he councils with Satanta and Big Tree first. They are in prison in Texas for their participation in the fighting on the Butterfield Trail on May 18, 1871. After heated negotiations with Texas officials, the U.S. got permission to take Satanta and Big Tree to Saint Louis, a place with few Indians, to meet Lone Wolf. They leave the prison in Huntsville, Texas.

1873: The confines of the Swinomish Reservation in Washington are established by Executive Order.

1874: Captain Wyllys Lyman, and sixty men from the Fifth Infantry, are escorting a supply wagon train for Colonel Nelson Miles at the Washita River, Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), when they are attacked by Indians. The soldiers remain barricaded for several days, until relief arrives from Camp Supply, in the panhandle of Indian Territory. One soldier is killed, three other whites, including Lieutenant Granville Lewis, are wounded during the fight. First Sergeant John Mitchell, Sergeants William de Armond, Fred S. Hay, George Kitchen, John Knox, William Koelpin and Frederick Neilon, Corporals John James, John J. H. Kelly, and William Morris, and Private Thomas Kelly, Company I, will earn the Congressional Medal of Honor for "gallantry in action" during this engagement. Some sources list this as occurring on September10th.

1876: Nez Perce Chief Joseph talks with Major Wood. The deadline to surrender passes.

1876: Captain Anson Mills, and 150 men from : Second, Third and Fifth Cavalry and Fourth, Ninth and Fourteenth Infantry soldiers, attack American Horse’s village of thirty-seven lodges, at Slim Buttes, Dakota, early this morning without warning. The entire village is captured. One soldier is killed, and seven are wounded. Five Indians are killed, including American Horse. Numerous personal items from the soldiers of the Seventh Cavalry are discovered in the camp, including a pair of gloves belonging to Colonel Myles Keogh. After the initial morning victory, Indians from nearby villages gather, and attack the soldiers, who have been reinforced by General George Crook's main force. Seven soldiers are wounded in the later fighting, including . Lt. A.H. Von Luettwitz. One white scout, and one soldier are killed. According to army reports, seven or eight Indians are killed in the second fight. Sergeant John Kirkwood and Private Robert Smith, Company M, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor because they..."bravely endeavored to dislodge some Sioux Indians secreted in a ravine."

1876: “Treaty 6 Between Her Majesty The Queen and The Plain and Wood Cree Indians and Other Tribes of Indians at Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt and Battle River with Adhesions” is signed in Canada.

1877: Fleeing from the army through the Yellowstone area, the Nez Perce Indians change direction to Clark's Fork Canyon.

1878: According to army reports, on this night, eighty-nine Northern Cheyenne men, 112 women, and 134 children, abandon their lodges, and escape from the Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency at Fort Reno, in central Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Dull Knife, Wild Hog, and Little Wolf are some of the leaders of the escapees. They are attempting to return to their old homelands to the north.

1881: Crazy Horse's family takes his body for burial.

1891: Two Kickapoo Chiefs, chosen to accompany Americans to the Capitol to obtain some money owed to them, are forced, in their words, to sign an "agreement" by Secretary of the Interior John W. Noble. This agreement sells the United States, the Kickapoo's "surplus lands" at thirty cents an acre. Many forgeries, and the signatures of dead Indians, and signatures of fictitious Indians are added to the agreement. Congress approves the agreement on March 30, 1893.

1946: The Constitution and Bylaws of the Nisqually Indian Community of the Nisqually Reservation Washington are approved by Girard Davidson Assistant Secretary of the Interior.

1989: The Cherokee Tribal Council makes a change in the official tribal flag. A seven-pointed black star is added to the upper right corner as a reminder of the Cherokees who lose their lives on the "Trail of Tears."

September 10

655: Another war by Balam Ahaw of Tortuguero is started according to Mayan records.

1683: Susquehanna Chief Kekelappan sells William Penn half of his lands between the Susquehanna and the Delaware River.

1753: The Winchester Conference begins with representatives of the Delaware and Iroquois Indians.

1782: A force of forty British Rangers and 250 Indians attack the fort built in Wheeling, Virginia (now West Virginia). None of the soldiers are killed on either side. A few Indians die in the fighting. Some historians feel this is the last battle of the American Revolutionary war.

1791: Today marks the start of some major fort construction projects in the Ohio Valley.

1836: The Sioux of Wahashaw’s Tribe sign a treaty (7 stat. 510).

1853: A treaty (10 stat. 1018) with the Rogue River Indians is signed by Indians at Table Rock.

1864: Major E.W. Wynkoop meets with Cheyenne and Arapaho chiefs, including Black Kettle to discuss the release of prisoners.

1866: Soldiers from the Eighteenth Infantry fight with a band of Indians near Fort Phil Kearny in Dakota Territory through September 16th. The army reports two enlisted men are killed and two are wounded. The soldiers are led by Captain William J. Fetterman.

1867: According to army records, members of the Fourth Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near Live Oak Creek, Texas. No injuries are reported on either side.

1868: Settlements along the Purgatorie (sic) River are attacked by Indians. Captain William Penrose, and Third Infantry troops from Fort Lyon, in southeastern Colorado, arrive at the scene, and pursue the marauders. The army catches up to the Indians at Rule Creek, Colorado. Four Indians and two soldiers are killed in the fight. Five army horses die from exhaustion due to the pursuit. Four miles east of Lake Station, Indians shoot at a stage.

1868: Army records indicate that members of the Eighth Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near the Lower Aqua Fria in Arizona. Four Indians are killed, and three are captured.

1872: Indians skirmish with a group of soldiers from the Second Cavalry between Beaver Creek and Sweet Water, Wyoming, according to official army records. One Indian is wounded. The fighting lasts through the 13th.

1874: Captain Wyllys Lyman, and sixty men from the Fifth Infantry, are escorting a supply wagon train for Colonel Nelson Miles at the Washita River, Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), when they are attacked by Indians. The soldiers remain barricaded for several days, until relief arrives from Camp Supply, in the panhandle of Indian Territory. One soldier is killed, three other whites, including Lieutenant Granville Lewis, are wounded during the fight. First Sergeant John Mitchell, Sergeants William de Armond, Fred S. Hay, George Kitchen, John Knox, William Koelpin and Frederick Neilon, Corporals John James, John J. H. Kelly, and William Morris, and Private Thomas Kelly, Company I, will earn the Congressional Medal of Honor for "gallantry in action" during this engagement. Some sources list this as occurring on September 9th.

1877: Sixth Cavalry soldiers and some Indian scouts fight a group of Indians near the San Francisco River in New Mexico. According to army documents, twelve Indians are killed, and thirteen are captured. The fighting started on September 8th.

1879: Settlers soldiers fight a group of Indians near McEver’s Ranch and Arroyo Seco, New Mexico. According to army documents, nine citizens are killed.

1879: White River Utes Agent, N.C. Meeker, writes to the Governor of Colorado requesting troops. Meeker believes the lives of settlers are in grave danger. He requests for the Governor, General John Pope, and Colorado Senator Teller confer on the matter. Meeker wants, at least, 100 troops to be sent, post haste, to his locale.

1885: According to a marker in the Fort Bowie cemetary in Arizona, Geronimo’s two year old son Little Robe dies. I948: The Assistant Secretary of the Interior has authorized an election to approve a Constitution and By- Laws for the Organized Village of Holikachuk, Alaska. It is passed by a vote of 21 to 0.

1967: An election to approve amendments to the Constitution and Bylaws for the Kashia Band of Pomo Indians of the Stewarts Point Rancheria is held. They are approved by a majority of the thirty-seven people voting.

1974: An amendment is made to the Fort Berthold Reservation Constitution.

1982: Amendments XII, XIII and XIV to the Constitution and Bylaws of the Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin are approved and becomes effective.

September 11

600: The eventual Maya King of Calukmal, Yuknoom The Great, is born.

693: As part of a series of attacks on neighboring cities in Guatemala, Maya warriors from Naranjo attack Tuub'al.

1609: Explorer Henry Hudson arrives at the "Hudson" River.

1855: A treaty is signed between the United States and the Mohuache Band of Utah Indians.

1856: Lasting through the 17th, the second Walla Walla conference begins.

1858: Colonel Miles, with five companies of soldiers, and fifty Mexicans, enter the Canyon de Chelly, in north eastern Arizona. The Navajos have not produced the Fort Defiance murderer of July 12, 1858. In fact, the Navajos have tried to pass off a killed Mexican prisoner as the sought for Navajo. The soldiers kill a few Navajos in the canyon. The soldiers camp in the canyon that night. The Navajos launch an ineffectual attack from the canyon walls. A captured Navajo convinces the other Navajos to stop the attack.

1868: Indians steal eighty-one head of cattle at Lake Creek from Clarke and Company hay contractors.

1868: Army records indicate that members of the Eighth Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near the Rio Verde in Arizona. Five Indians are killed.

1868: Army records indicate that members of the Seventh Cavalry and Third Infantry, under Lt. Colonel Alfred Sully, fight with a band of Indians near the Sand Hills in Indian Territory. The fighting lasts through September 15th. Three soldiers and twenty-two Indians are killed. Five soldiers and twelve Indians are wounded.

1874: Two scouts, and four soldiers, acting as couriers between Colonel Nelson Miles, and Major William Price are attacked by Indians near the Washita River, in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). During a two-day fight, four of the six are wounded, one mortally. Troops rescue the survivors, tomorrow. Sergeant Josiah Pennsyl, Company M, Sixth Cavalry, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions during the fighting.

1877: General Howard finds the Nez Perce trail and joins Sturgis' forces.

1881: Because of his actions in a battle near Fort Apache, Private First Class Will C. Barnes, Signal Corps, will eventually be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for "bravery in action."

1893: The territory of the Hoh Indian Reservation is set aside by an Executive Order.

September 12

379: Maya King Yax Nuun Ayiin I (Curl Nose) takes the throne of Tikal, Guatemala. He is quite young.

640: Palenque Maya Lady Zac - Kuk dies according to the Palenque museum.

1609: Henry Hudson arrives at the Bay of New York.

1675: After Sunday services, English settlers are going from the Deerfield meetinghouse to facilities in Stockwell. A group of Pocumtucks attack them, killing one man. The Pocumtucks quickly disappear into the surrounding countryside.

1675: In Maine, according to settlers’ records, the Abenaki attack John Wakely’s farmhouse in Falmouth. Seven people are killed, two are taken captive.

1815: The Osage sign a treaty (7 stat. 133) at Portage des Sioux..

1862: Little Crow writes to Colonel Sibley again. He says he has been treating his white prisoners kindly, and he wants to know how they can end the fighting. Sibley replies that not giving up the white captives is not the way to peace.

1868: General Nichols while traveling to Fort Reynolds in southeastern Colorado, is attacked by Indians. His escort runs them off. The Indians then steal 85 head of cattle near Bent's Old Fort, and four more from a ranch near Point of Rocks.

1869: Troops acting as an escort to a wagon train, skirmish with Indians near Laramie Peak, Wyoming. One soldier is wounded, and another is killed.

1874: Major William Price, and three troops of the Sixth Cavalry with a few "mountain howitzers", have a battle with a sizable group of Indians between the Sweetwater and the Dry Fork of the Washita River, in Texas. Two Indians are reported killed, and six wounded. Fourteen of the cavalry's mounts are killed or wounded. Twenty of the Indians horses are captured. Army scouts Amos Chapman and William Dixon will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for "gallantry in action." In a related action, Private John Harrington, Company H, is transporting dispatches from the battle scene when he, and several other couriers, are attacked by 125 Indians. "He was severely wounded in the hip and unable to move. He continued to fight, defending an exposed dying man." For his actions, Private Harrington would be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. Private Peter Roth, Company A, Corporal Edward Sharpless, Company H, Private George W. Smith, Company M, and Sergeant Zachariah Woodall, Company I, would also earn the country's highest award during the same fight. Private Smith will succumb to his wounds the next day. This is sometimes called ”The Buffalo Wallow Fight.”

1878: Lieutenant H.S. Bishop, with thirty troopers, and a few Shoshone scouts, attack a band of Bannock Indians on the Big Wind or the Dry Fork of the Snake River, southwest of Yellowstone Lake, in Wyoming. One Indian is killed, and seven are captured during the fighting. The captives say they are from the Boise Reservation and have escaped from the fight on September 4, 1878 on Clark's Fork with Colonel Miles. While the army reports eleven Indians killed, the captives say the correct figure is 28. This is the last significant battle of the Bannock War. According to an official government report, forty whites, and seventy-eight Indians are killed during the war.

1928: The Secretary of the Interior approves the allotment rolls of the Mission Creek Band of Indians from Mission Creek, California according to their Constitution.

1936: The Secretary of the Interior, Harold Ickes, authorizes an election to approve a Constitution and Bylaws for the Quileute Tribe of Washington. The election is held on October 10, 1936.

1965: The Assistant Secretary of the Interior has authorized an election to approve an amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida. Twenty-seven vote in favor, two voter against.

1969: The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe of the Flathead Reservation pass a resolution prohibiting the hunting or killing of Mountain Sheep.

September 13

1700: According to some sources, a land cession agreement is reached between representatives of the Susquehannock Indians and Pennsylvania.

1759: The Battle of Quebec takes place. The French lose.

1794: A force of 550 Kentucky and Tennessee Militia, led by Major James Ore, attacks the Chickamauga village of Nickajack on the Tennessee River. Many women and children are captured. Seventy braves are killed, including the village Chief "The Breath." Ore's forces torches most of the village after the fighting.

1815: William Clark, Auguste Chouteau, Ninian Edwards hold a conference at Portage des Sioux, Missouri (St. Charles County). They get Missouri Sauk and Foxes to promise not to join up with the Rock Island Sauks or to fight the U.S.

1868: Army records indicate that members of the Eighth Cavalry fight with a band of Indians on the Dragoon Fork of the Verde River. In Arizona. soldiers Indians are killed, wounded, and captured.

1871: Indians skirmish with a group of settlers near Tucson, Arizona, according to official army records. Two settlers are killed.

1872: Indians skirmish with a group of soldiers from the Second Cavalry between Beaver Creek and Sweet Water, Wyoming, according to official army records. One Indian is wounded. The fighting started on the 10th.

1873: Part of the Ute Reservation goes to the U.S..

1877 First and Seventh Cavalry soldiers, under Colonel S.D. Sturgis, fight a group of Nez Perce Indians near Canyon Creek, Montana, west of Billings, Montana. According to army documents, three soldiers and twenty- one Indians are killed. Captain T.H. French and ten soldiers are wounded.

1878: Dull Knife, and his Northern Cheyenne followers, have left their reservation in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). They are heading back to their old homelands. They cross the Cimarron River, 150 miles north of Fort Reno, near Turkey Springs in central Indian Territory, and establish a camp in some canyons. A group of Arapahos, talk with Dull Knife, and tell him the nearby soldiers want them to return to the reservation. Dull Knife refuses, and the soldiers attack. The Indians have the best strategic positions, and they pin down the soldiers. After making their escape, the Cheyenne are pursued along their entire northward journey.

1890: First Cavalry soldiers fight a group of Indians on the Tongue River Agency in Montana. According to army documents, two Indians are killed.

1984: Activist Dennis Banks surrenders.

September 14

1712: French King Louis XIV grants exclusive trade and governmental rights in Louisiana for fifteen years to rich, merchant Antoine Crozat, Marquis de Chatel.

1726: According to some sources, a land cession agreement is reached by representatives of Great Britain and the Cayuga, Onondaga and the Seneca Indians.

1755: Last month, Virginia Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed George Washington Commander in Chief of all forces in Virginia. The Governor orders him to establish his base of operations in northern Virginia in Winchester. Today, Washington arrives in Winchester. The villagers are either preparing for war with the local Indians, or they are in the process of moving to a safer area. Next year, Washington begins the construction of Fort Loudoun in Winchester.

1758: British Major James Grant attacks the apparently lightly defended French Fort Duquesne with 800 soldiers. However, the French have set a trap by hide a large force of soldiers and Indian warriors. The French and Indians defeat the British with Major Grant and 107 of his soldiers taken prisoner. 270 British are killed and a little more than forty are wounded in the fighting. The French and Indians losses are substantially less.

1763: Senecas fight with a supply wagon train just south of Niagara, as part of the Pontiac Rebellion. The train is carrying supplies from Fort Schlosser to Fort Niagara. One source cites this as the worst defeat of the war for the army.

1777: Spanish Governor Galvez issues an act, in New Orleans. He orders the military, and Spanish subjects to "respect the rights of these Indians in the lands they occupy and to protect them in the possession thereof."

1779: General John Sullivan, and his force of 4500 American soldiers continue their attack on suspected pro- British Indian villages in New York. They strike Gathtsegwarohare on the Genesee River. After destroying most of the village, Sullivan's troops move on to other villages. In all of his battles since August, he loses only forty men.

1780: Creek and British forces, under British Creek Indian Superintendent Thomas Browne, have captured Augusta, Georgia. A force of 500 Americans attempt to retake the town. The Creeks sustain severe losses.

1814: A force of British soldiers and Red Stick Creeks Creek Indians, led by Captain George Woodbine, attack Mobile, Alabama. Although they have four war ships at their disposal, the American forces holds out until the British and Creek force give up the fight.

1815: The Fox sign a treaty (7 stat. 135) at Portage des Sioux.

1816: This treaty (7 stat. 148) cedes the Cherokee lands in Muscle Shoals and Great Bend areas of northern Alabama for $11,000 annual payments for ten years. It is signed at the Chickasaw Council House.

1858: Colonel Miles has moved out of the Canyon de Chelly twelve miles to an area where the Navajos keep their flocks of sheep. Miles' soldiers have captured 6000 of the sheep. The Navajos attack Miles' camp, but it is only a minor engagement. The troops return to the fort tomorrow. There will continue to be minor skirmishes during the next several months.

1859: Robert S. Neighbors has a great deal of respect for Indians. He served as an Indian Agent for both the Republic of Texas, and the United States. His compassion for the Indians made him an enemy to many Texans who hated Indians. Neighbors is murdered for being an "Indian- lover" by Edward Cornett at Fort Belknap.

1866: Soldiers from the First Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near Camp Wilson in Oregon. The army reports one Indian is killed, and one is captured.

1868: Army records indicate that members of the Ninth Cavalry fight with a band of Indians in the Horse Head Hills of Texas. One soldiers is wounded and two Indians are killed.

1869: Army records indicate that members of the Second Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near Popo Agie, Wyoming. Two soldiers and seven Indians are wounded. Two Indians are killed.

1869: James Camp, and Private John Holt, Company K, Seventh Cavalry, are killed by Indians near the Little Wind River, Wyoming. On the Popoagie River, Wyoming, Lieutenant Charles Stambaugh, and Troop D, Second Cavalry skirmish with Indians. Two soldiers, and two Indians are killed. Ten Indians are wounded in the fight.

1876: Fifth Cavalry soldiers fight some Indians on Owl Creek (Belle Fourche River) in Dakota Territory. According to army documents, one soldier is killed.

1878: Fourth Cavalry soldiers fight a group of Indians near Red Hill, Indian Territory. According to army documents, one soldier is killed.

1961: An Act (75 tat. 505) is passed by Congress to “authorize the exchange of lands for the Pueblo Indians. Title to lands acquired will be in trust status.”

1970: An election to approve a Constitution and By-Laws for the San Pasqual Band of Mission (Diegueno) Indians in the San Pasqual Reservation is authorized by the Acting Assistant Commissioner of Indian Affairs. The election is held on November 29, 1970.

1975: An amendment to the Constitution and Bylaws of the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester Rancheria is approved in an election by a vote of 60 to 4.

1989: The Post Office issues a Sitting Bull stamp.

September 15

320: According to the Leyden Plaque, which is made of jade, a Maya leader in Tikal (Guatemala) takes office.

629: Maya King Bird Jaguar III takes the throne in Yaxchilan, Mexico.

1655: Esopus Indians attack New Amsterdam in sixty-four war canoes. This retaliatory raid is for the killing of an Indian woman by a settler for stealing peaches. It is called "The Peach War" by many, and casualties are slight on both sides as the Dutch drive the Indians out of the settlement. Leaving New Amsterdam, the Indians attack Staten Island and the Pavonia settlements in modern Jersey City, New Jersey. Here the casualties are considerably higher. Fifty settlers are killed, and almost 100 are captured.

1797: The Seneca sign a treaty with Robert Morris, and Jeremiah Wadsworth, on the Genesee River, in Ontario County, New York, to get a two square mile piece of the Tuscarora Reservation

1830: Secretary of War John Eaton, and John Coffee, arrive at Dancing Rabbit Creek to talk to the Choctaws about selling their lands, and moving west. They tell the Choctaws that the Federal government cannot stop state laws that require them to move. They also tell the Choctaws that if they resist, the white armies will outnumber them.

1832: The Winnebago sign a treaty (7 stat.370).

1858: The Butterfield Overland Mail route begins operation from St. Louis, Missouri and Memphis, Tennessee, through Fort Smith, Arkansas, to San Francisco, California. Contrary to many movie storylines, the mail is attacked by the Apaches only one time.

1868: Approximately 100 Indians attack Tenth Cavalry troops led by Captain George Graham on the Big Sandy Creek, Colorado. The troops claim eleven Indians killed, and fourteen wounded, while only sustaining seven injuries themselves.

1868: Army records indicate that members of the Seventh Cavalry and Third Infantry, under Lt. Colonel Alfred Sully, fight with a band of Indians near the Sand Hills in Indian Territory. The fighting started on through September 11th. Three soldiers and twenty-two Indians are killed. Five soldiers and twelve Indians are wounded.

1869: Lieutenant J.H. Spencer, leading Company B, Fourth Infantry, is attacked by 300 Indians near Whiskey Gap, Wyoming. One soldier is captured, and presumed dead.

1874: “Treaty 4 Between Her Majesty The Queen and The Cree and Saulteaux Tribe of Indians at the Qu’appelle and Fort Ellice” is signed in Canada.

1876: Troop F, Ninth Cavalry, under Captain Henry Carroll, fight with Indians in the Florida Mountain of New Mexico. One Indian is killed, and one soldier is wounded. Eleven head of livestock are recovered.

1884: Sitting Bull appears at Eden Musee in New York City.

1903: By Executive Order, the Fort McDowell Indian Reservation is established, northeast of Phoenix, Arizona. It covers 24,680 acres, and be home to Yavapai, Mohave- Apache and Apache Indians.

1976: An amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Manzanita Band of Mission Indians is ratified.

September 16

1684: Naumkeag Indian, and son of former Sachem Wenepoykin, James Quannapowit petitioned the English of Marblehead Massachusetts on July 14, 1684. He complained they were giving out lands which rightfully belonged to him. A deed is finally signed by all parties in order for the English to hold “rightful title” to the land.

1804: A Navajo war party attacks the village of Cebolleta in northwestern New Mexico. The war party of 500 to 1,000 Navajos find the village's three foot thick, ten foot high wall difficult to breach. After a four day siege, with numerous casualties on both sides, the Navajos leave the area. The thirty Spanish families who have settled the village in 1800 see many more raids in the future.

1815: The Iowa sign a peace treaty (7 stat.136) at Portage des Sioux (modern St. Charles County, Missouri). The United States is represented by William Clark, Ninian Edwards and Auguste Choteau.

1850: In a letter to the President of the United States, Senator John Fremont states Spanish law gave Indians rights to their lands. He feels the United States has to enact some laws to revoke the Indians' rights. Under the treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, the United States agreed to recognize Spanish land titles in the newly acquired California.

1867: According to army records, members of the Fourth Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near Fort Inge, Texas. No injuries are reported on either side.

1867: The Tenth Cavalry fights with a group of Indians near the Salinas River in Kansas. Two civilians are killed, and one soldier is wounded, according to army records.

1869: Army records indicate that members of the Ninth Cavalry and the Forty-First Infantry fight with a band of Indians near Salt Fork of the Brazos River in Texas. Three soldiers are wounded.

1878: According to a report by Lieutenant Colonel William Lewis, of Fort Dodge, in southwestern Kansas, Dull Knife and his 300 plus followers have been seen raiding local ranches near Bluff Creek, Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma).

1879: Tenth Cavalry and Twenty-Fifth Infantry soldiers fight a group of Indians in the Van Horn Mountains, in west Texas. According to army documents, no casualties are reported.

1879: The Secretary of War orders the military to send troops to the White River Ute Agency, to protect the local (white) inhabitants, and to arrest the Indians instigating troubles in the region.

1893: 100,000 people participate in the "run" for land in the recently purchased Cherokee Strip of Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). The Cherokees were pressured into selling the land to the Federal Government.

1974: An United States Court dismisses the charges Dennis Banks, and Russell Means, for their activities at the Wounded Knee, South Dakota, occupation. The judge cited that the F.B.I. has "lied and suborned perjury" during the trial.

1974: Raymond Lightfoot, Area Director of the Minneapolis Office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, authorizes an election for an amendment to the Constitution of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians of Minnesota.

September 17

1718: According to some sources, a land cession agreement is reached by representatives of the Delaware Indians and Pennsylvania.

1778: The Delaware sign a treaty (7 stat. 13). Delaware Principal Chief Koquethagechton (White Eyes) is appointed as a Colonel at the treaty signing. He works to see the Delaware Nation become the 14th American State. The treaty is signed in Pittsburgh, by three Chiefs: White Eyes, The Pipe, and John Killbuck, and Andrew and Thomas Lewis.

1799: Commissioners have established a camp at the juncture of the Flint and the Chattahoochee Rivers in Creek territory. They are there to eventually draw a treaty line through Creek lands. During the summer many Creeks have visited the camp to complain of the land cession. Chief Hopoheilthle Micco, and some Tallassee followers, attack the camp. They steal supplies and insult the commissioners. Later, Creek Chiefs beat the Tallassee Chief to death for his actions.

1812: After a series of raids into Georgia, a local militia led by Colonel Daniel Newnan, enters Spanish held Florida looking for Seminoles. They start a running battle with the Alachua Band of Seminoles led by King Payne. This fight lasts until the militia is reinforced on October 11th.

1818: Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur, representing the United States, sign a treaty (7 stat. 178) with the Ottawa, Seneca, Shawnee, and Wyandot tribes on the St. Mary’s River on the Indiana-Ohio border. The treaty covers reservation boundaries and annuities.

1836: According to a treaty (7 stat. 511), the Missouri Sac and Fox and Iowa tribes are given the following lands: "the small strip of land on the south side of the Missouri River, lying between the Kickapoo northern boundary line and the Grand Nemahaw River, and extending from the Missouri back and westwardly with the said Kickapoo line and the Grand Nemahaw, making 400 sections, to be divided between the said Iowas and Missouri Sacs and Foxes; the upper half to the Iowas, the lower half to the Sacs and Foxes." Years later, much of this land is ceded back to the U.S.

1851: The "Fort Laramie Treaty" (15 stat. 635) is signed by more tribes. The area mentioned eventually covers 1,382.5 square miles and be occupied by "Arikara, Grosventre and Mandan" Indians. It is called the Fort Berthold Reservation. # You can see pictures of this area on my website at # http://americanindian.net/2003p.html

1858: Colonel George Wright meets with some Coeur d’Alene Chiefs at the Sacred Heart Mission to sign the first of a series of peace and friendship treaties.

1868: In Colorado, Brevet Colonel G.A. Forsyth (Ninth Cavalry), and fifty scouts are following the trail of Indians who have been marauding near Sheridan City. As they approach the "Arickaree" Fork of the Republican River, they are attacked by 700 Indians. The soldiers move to an island which is 125 yards long by fifty yards wide. The army claims killing thirty-five Indians, while losing only six, including Lieutenant F.H. Beecher and Surgeon Moore. Forsyth, and his men live on horseflesh until the 25th, when a relief column of “buffalo soldiers” arrives. Roman Nose dies in the fighting. This is called the "Battle of Beecher's Island" by the soldiers.

1868: Indians attack and burn Ellis Station in Kansas, killing one station employee in the process. The Saline settlements are attacked again. The Indians are driven off by Seventh Cavalry troops. Three miles from Fort Bascom, in eastern New Mexico, Indians kill a herder, and steal his thirty mules. Troops from the fort pursue the Indians for 125 miles, but cannot catch them.

1868: Army records indicate that settlers fight with a group of Indians near Fort Bascom, New Mexico. One settler is killed, and one is wounded.

1869: Indians steal a some livestock, and soldiers from Fort Stanton, in central New Mexico, pursue them. The soldiers follow a trail to an Indian village, which the subsequently destroy. In the process, three Indians are wounded. No one is killed. At Point of Rocks, Wyoming, a stagecoach is attacked, and the driver is killed. On Twin Creek, in Wyoming, soldiers escorting the mail are attacked and pursued into the mountains by Indians.

1877: Colonel Miles gets order to cut off the Nez Perce's attempt to reach Canada.

1878: Indian scouts for the army fight a group of Indians near Bear Creek, New Mexico. According to army documents, one soldier and two Indians are killed.

1879: According to a report by Major Albert Morrow, Ninth Cavalry, Indians fight settlers in the Black Range near Hillsboro, New Mexico. "Hostiles" kill ten citizens, and seize all of their livestock.

1884: Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas, is dedicated for educating Indian youth.

1966: According to newspaper story in the Washington Post, “a flaming meteorite lit up the skies across the north central United States last night, frightening hundreds of persons who saw it before it broke up in bits of smoking debris over northern Indiana.” The meteorite causes a few small fires, as well. According to another source, "On New York State's official "Indian Day,” Sept. 17, 1966, the Hopi delegation journeyed to the Tuscarora Reserve to join the assembled seventeen Indian Tribes and guests from all over the world. Many had asked for a sign and several expressed that hope audibly. It came that evening about 8:35 in the form of a tremendous rose-colored fireball lighting the scene as though by day, streaking across the sky above them."

1975: The Area Director of the Sacramento Area Office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs ratifies an amendment to the Constitution and Bylaws of the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester Rancheria.

1975: Morris Thompson, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, ratifies an amendment to the constitution of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, consisting of the Chippewa Indians of the White Earth, Leech Lake, Fond du Lac, Bois Forte (Nett Lake) and Grand Portage Reservations.

1975: The Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Morris Thompson, ratifies a Constitution and By-Laws for the Sauk-Suiattle Indian Tribe

September 18

524: Maya King Kan B'alam I (Great Sun Snake Jaguar) is born. Eventually, he rules over Palenque, Mexico.

1675: After several raids by King Philip's Indians, Deerfield, in central Massachusetts, is abandoned. Eighty residents, under Captain Lathrop, from Ipswich, in eastern Massachusetts, ride over to Deerfield to harvest several fields of grain. On their way home, the Europeans stop for a rest at a small brook. They are attacked by several hundred Indians, who have been following them for some time. By the time a nearby militia can come to the rescue, sixty-eight of the settlers have been killed.

1759: The French surrender Quebec.

1813: After the "massacre" at Fort Mims, Alabama, by the " Red Stick" Creeks, the word of the Creek uprising spreads. In Nashville, Tennessee, Governor William Blount calls on the State Legislature to "teach these barbarous sons of the woods their inferiority." The cry for vengeance rings throughout the area. In a few weeks, Andrew Jackson begins his campaign against the Creek.

1823: Thirty-one Seminoles sign a treaty (7 stat.224) on Moultrie Creek in Florida, with the United States. Six Chiefs are given large estates to get them to agree to the treaty. Those chiefs were: John Blunt, Eneah Emathla, Emathlochee, Tuski Hadjo, Econchattemicco, and Mulatto King. The Seminoles give up lands north of Tampa Bay, and return runaway black slaves. They receive an annuity of $5000. The lands set aside for the Seminoles are poor, at best. The Americans are represented by James Gadsden.

1830: The Choctaw conference at Dancing Rabbit Creek, officially begins, with Peter P. Pitchlynn as Chairman of the Choctaw participants. Greenwood le Flore demands a larger delegation of northern Choctaws. After two weeks of arguments, many of the Choctaws go home. An agreement is reached to send trusted people west to check out the new lands. A census of the Choctaw, taken this month, shows the population to be 19,554 (see September 27, 1830).

1833: Choctaws still in the southern Mississippi District hold a council and decide they will not move to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma).

1851: One in a series of treaties with California Indians is signed at Camp Colus and Camp Cosumnes. The treaties are designed to reserve lands for the Indians, and to protect them from Europeans.

1862: General James H. Charlatan assumes command of the Department of New Mexico. He is sent there to fight the Confederate forces, and the "hostile" Indians.

1864: Confederate Cherokees, led by Brigadier General Stand Watie, and other Confederate forces, capture a Union wagon train in modern Mayes County, Oklahoma. This supply shipment has enough food and other goods for 2,000 soldiers and is valued at one and a half million dollars. This is the last significant Civil War engagement in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma).

1873: Captain James Egan, and Troops K, and E, Second Cavalry, attack a band of Sioux Indians on the North Laramie River. The troops seize eighteen horses and mules.

1876: Indian scouts fight some Indians in the “caves” east of Verde, Arizona. According to army documents, five Indians are killed, and thirteen are captured.

1879: Captain Byron Dawson, and two troops from the Ninth Cavalry, find, and attack, Victorio, and approximately 140 Warm Springs Apaches, at the source of the Las Animas River, in New Mexico. Two more troops of cavalry arrive under the command of Captain Charles Beyer; but, the army is forced to withdraw. Five soldiers, one civilian, and two Navajo scouts are killed by the Apaches. Second Lieutenant Matthias W. Day will earn the Congressional Medal of Honor for retrieving a wounded soldier while under heavy fire. Sergeant John Denny, Company C, will also win the Medal of Honor for the same actions. Second Lieutenant Robert T. Emmet will also be awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions in today's battle.

1975: An amendment is made to the Constitution and Bylaws of the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester Rancheria.

1978: The boundaries of the Pascua Yaqui Indian Reservation are established by an Act of Congress, (Public Law 95-375; 92 Stat. 712).

1980: A “base membership roll” is established for the Pascua Yaqui Indians.

September 19

1737: Today is the start of the walking for the "Walking Purchase" from the Delaware. The walkers are Solomon Jennings, Edward Marshall, and James Yates. The "walkers” barely stay below a run. By the next day at noon, Edward Marshall has covered sixty-five miles. Yates, who passes out from the exertion, dies three days later. Jennings gives up the first day and is sickly for the rest of his life. Many Indians complain the "walk" does not live up to the spirit of the agreement.

1827: At Fort St. Joseph, present-day Niles, Michigan, a treaty (7 stat. 305) is signed by Lewis Cass, and the Potawatomi Indians. Tribal lands are ceded, old boundaries are redrawn, and the Indians receive an annuity.

1845: A peace conference is held between representative of Texas and local Indians.

1867: In an effort to end Red Cloud's War, a new peace commission comes to the end of the Union Pacific tracks near Platte City, Nebraska. The commissioners include General William Tecumseh Sherman, Indian Commissioner Nathaniel Taylor, Indian Agent William Harney, Indian Agent John Sanborn, General Alfred Terry, and a few others. The Indians are represented by Man Afraid, Pawnee Killer, Turkey Leg, Swift Bear, Standing Elk, Big Mouth, Spotted Tail, and several others. The Indians tell of the problems they are having due to people invading their lands. Later, the commissioners tell the Indians the "Great Father" wants them to move to reservations on the Missouri and the Cheyenne River. The Indians are not happy with this suggestion. The Indians have their own names for most of the commissioners: "Great Warrior" Sherman, "One Star Chief" Terry, "White Whiskers" Harney, and "Black Whiskers" Sanborn. The conference ends soon, and the commissioners ask the Indians to meet them at Fort Laramie, in southeastern Wyoming, in November.

1867: According to army records, members of the Fifth Cavalry Infantry fight with a band of Indians near Walker’s Creek (thirty five miles west of Fort Harker), Kansas. One soldier is killed, and three are wounded. Two Indians are killed in the fighting.

1871: Indians attack a small detachment of troops near Foster Springs and the Red River, Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). One soldier is wounded, three Indians are wounded, and two Indians are killed according to army files.

1872: Fifty Comanche Indians are attacked by an army patrol consisting of one sergeant, seven privates, and two Tonkawa Indian scouts in Jones County, Texas. According to the army report, "one Mexican Chief" is killed, and eleven stolen horses are recovered.

1879: Navajo army Indian scouts fight a group of Indians in the Miembres Mountains of New Mexico. According to army documents, two scouts are killed.

1936: An order passed on February 14, 1913, which allowed the homesteading of certain lands in the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in the Dakotas, is modified.

1974: Bonner's Ferry Kootenai Band, sixty-seven members strong, declare war on the United States. They demand payments for seized lands, hunting-fishing-water rights, and an $128,000 acre reservation.

1985: The Lac Du Flambeau Tribal Council enacts by referendum the “Reservation Water and Shoreline Protection and Enhancement Ordinance.” Every: Laguna Pueblo festival.

September 20

524: Palenque Maya Lord Chan Bahlum I is born according to the museum at Palenque.

1654: A deed for Indian land is recorded in New England. It says, “This writing witnesseth that I Ratiocan Sagamor of Cow Harbor, have sold unto Samuel Mayo, Daniel Whitehead and Peter Wright my neck of land which makes the east side of Oyster Bay, and the west side of Cow Harbor on the north side bounded with the sound, called by the Indians Camusett.”

1782: Lieutenant Richard Johnston and the York County Militia are ordered to go to Pittsburgh from their patrol area in Bedford County, Pennsylvania. They join a force led by General Hand against the Indians near Pittsburgh

1805: Today through October 9th, Lewis and Clark meet with the Nez Perce in the Weippe prairie, east of Weippe, Idaho.

1816: The treaty (7 stat. 150) signed by the Chickasaw pays them $16,500 a year, for ten years, for lands on both sides of the Tennessee River and in the Great Bend area.

1818: Lewis Cass, representing the United States, signs a treaty (7 stat. 180) with members of the Wyandot Tribe on the St. Mary’s River on the Indiana-Ohio border. The treaty involves the release of property in Michigan.

1822: Lakota Chief Red Cloud (Makhpiya-Luta) is born.

1828: Lewis Cass and Pierre Menard, representing the United States, and the Potawatomi Nation, signed a treaty (7 stat. 317) at Fort St. Joseph, present-day Niles, Michigan. Land near Lake Michigan in ceded for an increase in the tribes annuity.

1836: The Potawatomi sign a treaty (7 stat. 513) at Chippewanaung.

1836: Lieutenant Colonel John F. Lane, 690 Creek warriors, and ninety soldiers board transport from Alabama en route to Tampa Bay, Florida to fight the Seminoles. They reach Fort Drane on October 19th.

1858: Camp Walbach is established near Cheyenne Pass. It is in the southeastern corner of Wyoming.

1866: Soldiers from the Eighteenth Infantry fight with a band of Indians near Fort C.F. Smith in Montana. The army reports one officer and one enlisted man are killed.

1867: According to army records, members of the Fourth Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near the Devil’s River in Texas. One Indian is killed.

1869: Army records indicate that members of the Ninth Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near the Brazos River in Texas. One soldier is wounded. The fighting lasts through tomorrow.

1873: Indians fight with soldiers from the Second Cavalry near Fort Fetterman, Wyoming, according to army documents. No casualties are reported.

1874: According to his citation for the Medal of Honor, "Seminole Negro Adam Paine for Gallantry on September 20th (1874) when attacked by a hugely superior party of Indians. This man is a scout of great courage." Most sources list this as happening on September 26th.

1875: The United States wants the Black Hills. The President sends out a commission to negotiate the issue. The United States representatives include Iowa Senator William Allison, General Alfred Terry, trader John Collins, and missionary Samuel Hinman. The meeting is held on the White River between the Spotted Tail, and Red Cloud Agencies in Dakota. When the commissioners arrive, they are astounded by the number of Indians camping in the immediate area. It is estimated there are more than 20,000 Sioux, Arapaho, and Cheyenne. The commissioners have an escort of 120 troops from nearby Fort Robinson, in northwestern Nebraska. As the conference starts, thousands of Indian warriors appear and ride around the commissioners in a dramatic show of force. After the commissioners state their interest in the mineral rights to the Black Hills, a representative from Red Cloud, who refuses to attend, asks for an adjournment for a few days, so the Indians can council among themselves. The commissioners agree to return on the twenty-third. The United States names their representatives the Allison commission.

1875: “Treaty 5 Between Her Majesty The Queen and The Saulteaux and Swampy Cree Tribes of Indians at Beren’s River and Norway House with Adhesions” is signed in Canada.

1922: An Act (42 Stat. 857) is passed by Congress. It is to “allow lands reserved for schools and Agency purposes and all other unallotted land on the Fort Peck and the Blackfeet Reservations to be leased for mining purposes.”

1950: William Warne, Assistant Secretary of the Interior, authorizes an election for the adoption of a Constitution and Bylaws for the Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. The election is held on September 20, 1950.

1987: Pope John Paul II visits Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories. Called “Yahtita” (Priest of Priests) in the Dene language, his service is translated into Cree, Dene and Slavey.

September 21

1638: The Treaty of Hartford is signed. After losing their battle with the English, and their Indians allies, the Pequots surrender. The surviving members of the tribe are given as servants to the Indian allies of the English.

1721: According to some sources, the Tuscarora set out to the nearby European settlements as a preparation for the onset of their attacks tomorrow.

1753: According to some reports an agreement to return prisoners is reached by representatives of the British in Massachusetts and the Penobscot Indians.

1832: The Sac and Fox sign a treaty (7 stat. 374) at Fort Armstrong.

1833: The Oto and Missouri sign a treaty (7 stat. 429).

1866: Soldiers from the Eighteenth Infantry fight with a band of Indians on the Tongue River in Dakota Territory. The army reports two enlisted men are wounded.

1869: Army records indicate that members of the Ninth Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near the Brazos River in Texas. One soldier is wounded. The fighting started yesterday.

1878: Captains Joseph Rendlebrock, and Charles Morse, with 150 soldiers and fifty local volunteers, finally find part of Dull Knife's Cheyenne. The two forces fight on Sand Creek, south of the Arkansas River sometime after sunset. The Indians manage to escape.

1879: Based on the order issued by the Secretary of War on September 16, 1879, Major T.T. Thornburgh, Troops D, and F, Fifth Cavalry, Troop E, Third Cavalry, and Company E, Fourth Infantry, leave Fort Fred Steele, in southern Wyoming, en route to the White River Agency in Colorado. This force is approximately 200 strong.

1904: Chief Joseph (Hinmaton-yalatkit or Hein-mot too-ya-la-kekt) dies.

1936: The Secretary of the Interior authorizes an election for a Constitution and By-Laws for the Covelo Indian Community of the Round Valley Reservation in California. The election is held on November 7, 1936.

September 22

1528: Having completed five boats, two days ago, Panfilo de Narvaez loads the remaining 242 men of his expedition and leave to search for his sailing ships. They have been pursued by Apalachee Indians for some time. Most of Narvaez' force is lost at sea. Cabeza de Vaca lands on Galveston Island, in Texas, on November 6, 1528.

1711: The Tuscarora Indians, under Chief Hencock, join the Coree, Pamlico, Machapunga, and Bear River Indians in an attack on the white settlements on the Trent and Pamlico Rivers in North Carolina. Almost 130 white adults, and half that many children are killed. The war springs from whites settling in Indian lands, and Indian retaliations. A Swiss promoter, Baron Christoph von Graffenried orders the Indians removed, when he discovers them on lands he has obtained from the Crown, at New Bern, in western North Carolina.

1784: Today, marks the first "run-in" between a Russian settlement in Alaska and the local inhabitants.

1836: The Potawatomi sign a treaty (7 stat. 514) at Chippewanaung

1861: A series of horse races, with bets being placed by soldiers and Navajos, takes place outside Fort Fauntleroy. A dispute arises during the third race. The Indians say it should be run again, the soldiers take their winnings and go into the fort. The fort is closed and the Indians are told to stay out. As one Navajo tries to enter the fort, a shot rings out, and the Indian is killed. Pandamoniun breaks loose and some soldiers begin attacking the Navajos outside the fort. According to army records, a little over a dozen Navajos are killed during the “Horse Race Fight.”

1866: An Executive Order establishes the Shoalwater Bay Indian Reservation in Washington State.

1871: Indians attack, and kill, two men herding livestock near Fort Sill, in southern Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). The Indians escape with fifteen head of livestock.

1877: Treaty 7 is signed by the Canadian government and representatives of the Blackfeet, Blood, Peigan, Sarcee and Stoney Bands in Alberta.

1885: Army Indian scouts, under Captain Wirt Davis, fight with a group of Indians in the Teres Mountains of Mexico. According to army documents, one scout and one Indians are killed. One scout and two Indians are wounded.

September 23

714: As part of a series of attacks on neighboring cities in Guatemala, Maya warriors from Naranjo attack Sakha'.

1519: Hernán Cortés and his army arrive at the gates to the Mexican city of Tlascala. A large crowd turns out to the the Spaniards.

1730: Seven Cherokee representatives in London, England, sign "Articles of Agreement." This agreement establishes a formal alliance with England for the next fifty years. This gives the English exclusive trade rights with the Cherokees, and makes the Cherokees military allies. The Cherokees are led by Chiefs Oukah-ulah and Attakullaculla (Little Carpenter).

1761: According to newspaper reports, Cherokee Chief Attakullaculla (Little Carpenter) sign a peace treaty with English Governor Bull. This ends the fighting which has been going on for almost two years in Charlestown, South Carolina.

1805: Pike buys land for Fort Snelling.

1804: Lewis and Clark invite the Teton Sioux to a meeting.

1806: Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis, their expedition ends.

1836: The Potawatomi sign a treaty (7 stat. 515) at Chippewanaung.

1839: The Cherokee Nation's Supreme Court is established.

1842: In a public meeting in Champoeg in the Oregon country, Elija White tells the crowd that he has been appointed as the official U.S. Indian agent in Oregon.

1853: Major Earl Van Dorn has Camp Radziminski builds as a supply base for the army’s efforts against the “hostile” local Indians. It is on the Otter Creek, in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). It is used off and on for the next seven years.

1858: Yakama Chief Owhi rides in unescorted to meet with Colonel George Wright. Owhi hopes to save his son from being killed for his part in the recent fighting in the Pacific Northwest. Owhi is unsuccessful in his efforts and is placed under arrest.

1862: Approximately 700 Santee Sioux, under Little Crow, engage in a fight at Wood Lake, Minnesota. They face Colonel Henry Sibley and approximately 1,500 soldiers.

1867: According to army records, members of the Fifth Infantry fight with a band of Indians nine miles west of Cimarron Crossing, Kansas, on the Arkansas River. One soldier is killed, and Lt. Ephraim Williams is wounded.

1869: Elements of the Eighth Cavalry have been fighting "hostile Indians" at Red Creek, Arizona. For "gallantry in action" today, Privates George Ferrari and John Walker, and Sergeant Charles D. Harris, Company D, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

1869: After a long chase, soldiers from Fort Cummings, in southwestern New Mexico, catch a band of Indians with stolen horses. The troopers retrieve thirty of the mounts.

1873: Indians fight with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry and some Indian scouts near Hardscrabble Creek in Arizona, according to army documents. Fourteen Indians are killed, and five are captured.

1875: As the Black Hills conference is reconvened, Red Cloud is now present. None of the Indians are interested in parting with their sacred "Maha Sopa," the Black Hills. Before Red Cloud can speak, a band of 300 of Crazy Horse's warriors rush in on horseback. Crazy Horse's representative, Little Big Man exclaims he will kill any Chief who agrees to give away the Black Hills. While the Sioux police move Little Big Man away from the commissioners, the commissioners realize that most of those present agree that the Black Hills will not be given away. The commissioners decide to return to Fort Robinson, in northwestern Nebraska.

1876: The Black Hills Treaty is signed at the Spotted Tail Agency.

1877: The Nez Perce reach the Missouri River and Cow Island landing. The landing is guarded by Sergeant William Molchert, and a small detachment of twelve Seventh Cavalry soldiers, and four civilians. This is north of modern Winifred, Montana. According to army documents, one soldier and two volunteers are killed.

1918: Under authority of an Act of Congress (34 Stat.

325-326), an Executive Order is issued which extends the trust period for ten years on allotments to the Iowa Indians in Kansas.

1954: Canadian Indians go to court over tariff issues.

September 24

1676: Abenaki Indians attack settlers in Wells, Maine, near the New Hampshire border. Three settlers are killed in the fighting before the Indians retire.

1819: Lewis Cass negotiates a treaty (7 stat. 203) for the United States with the Chippewas. For $1000 a year, the services of a blacksmith, and provisions, the Chippewa give up a large section of land. The treaty is signed in Saginaw, Michigan.

1829: George Vashon, representing the United States, and the Delaware Indians sign a treaty (7 stat. 327) at the St. Mary’s River on the Indiana-Ohio border. The Delaware give up lands along the "White River" in exchange for land along the Missouri and Kansas Rivers. The Delaware also receive an annuity.

1850: The Navajo treaty (9 stat.974) signed on September 9, 1849 is proclaimed.

1853: Command of Fort Phantom Hill, north of Abilene, Texas, changes hands from Lieutenant Colonel Carlos A. Waite to Major H.H. Sibley. The fort is often visited by the local Comanches, Lipan-Apaches, Kiowas and Kickapoos.

1857: The Pawnee sign a treaty (11 stat. 729).

1858: Qualchan, son of Yakama Chief Owhi, rides into Colonel George Wright's camp. Qualchan is wanted for what the settlers consider as murder for his part in the recent fighting. Qualchan is taken into custody and hanged later.

1862: After realizing the futility of continuing to fight Colonel Sibley’s troops, Little Wolf decides to speak to his Santee Sioux followers. Little Wolf cannot understand how they lost yesterday's battle. He still believes the Sioux are brave, and the soldiers are weak. He feels betrayed. Today, he, and Shakopee, Medicine Bottle, and their followers leave to travel west. Many other Santee surrender to Colonel Sibley.

1867: According to army records, members of the Thirty-Seventh Infantry fight with a band of Indians near Nine Mile Ridge, Kansas. One soldier is wounded.

1868: Representing the United States, W.J. Cullen, commissioner and James Tufts, Secretary of Montana Territory, and acting Governor and Superintendent of Indian Affairs, sign a treaty with the "Shoshones, Bannacks and Sheepwaters." One of the signers is Chief Tendoy of the Lemhi.

1869: After raiding "Mexican ranches" near Fort Bayard, in southwestern New Mexico, troopers follow the Indians to their mountain village. In the fight there, three Indians are wounded. The soldiers destroy the village and its contents.

1875: “Treaty 5 Between Her Majesty The Queen and The Saulteaux and Swampy Cree Tribes of Indians at Beren’s River and Norway House with Adhesions” is signed in Canada.

1877: Major Ilges sights the Nez Perce. Miles' force is at the Missouri River.

1946: The Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs has authorized an election to establish a Constitution and By-Laws for the Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota. It is approved by a vote of 300 to 146.

1970: The Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs authorizes an election to establish a Constitution and By-Laws for the Winnemucca Shoshone Indian Colony of Nevada. The election is held on December 12, 1970.

1973: The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Interior, W.L. Rogers, ratifies the Nooksack Indian Tribe of Washington election for a Constitution and By-Laws.

1973: An election which approved an amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws for the Sokaogon Chippewa Community of Wisconsin is ratified by W.L. Rogers, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Interior. The election is held on July

19, 1973.

1988: A “Disenrollment Procedure” is added to the Constitution of the Pechanga Indian Reservation - Temecula Band of Luiseno Mission Indians.

September 25

1539: Hernando de Soto's expedition builds a bridge to cross the Suwannee River.

1675: The first of several attacks by Indians on the settlements on Cape Neddick, near York, Maine, begins.

1714: The five Iroquois Nations send the Governor of New York, a letter. They tell the Governor, that the Tuscaroras join the Iroquois Confederacy. Long ago, they had moved away. Now, they return.

1793: Near Knoxville, Tennessee, a group of around 300 Chickamaugas, including Captain Bench, Doublehead and John Watts, attack Alexander Cavett's fort. Cavett, and three other men are guarding ten women and children. After a few Chickamaugas are killed, John Watts calls for a parley. He promises not to kill the settlers, if they surrender. Finding their situation hopeless, the settlers give up and open the fort. Against the wishes of Bench and Watts, Doublehead kills all of the settlers except one boy saved by Watts. The boy meets his own death a few days later by another angry Indian.

1804: Lewis and Clark have a council with the Teton Sioux.

1806: Zebulon Pike’s expedition reaches a Pawnee village on the Solomon Fork River in what is modern Kansas.

1818: The Osage sign a treaty (7 stat. 183) at St. Louis.

1868: On September 17th, Brevet Colonel Forsyth, and fifty scouts are attacked by 700 Indians. Two scouts escape to Fort Wallace, in western Kansas to get help. Brevet Colonel H.C. Bankhead and 100 men of the Fifth Cavalry, along with Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Louis Carpenter's company from the Tenth Cavalry, arrive to relieve Forsyth. Carpenter is awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions. General Luther Bradley, from the Department of the Platte River, also arrives to help.

1872: Indians skirmish with a group of soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry in Muchos Canyon on the Santa Maria River in Arizona, according to official army records. Forty Indians are killed.

1877: A group of local volunteers, under Major Guido Ilges, fight a band of Nez Perce Indians near Cow Creek Canyon, Montana. According to army documents, one volunteer is killed, and two Nez Perce are wounded.

1879: The 200 men under Major T.T. Thornburgh, arrive at Fortification Creek, Colorado, en route to the White River Agency. Their mission is to protect the local settlers and arrest "hostile" Indians. Thornburgh's 30-man infantry company stays at this location, and establish a base camp for Major Thornburgh's expedition.

1919: By a vote of of twenty-nine for, and one person not voting, the Muskeg Lake Cree vote to sell 8,920 acres of land in Saskatchewan.

1935: The Constitution and By-Laws of the Fort Belknap Indian Community of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation in Montana are adopted.

1975: The first Indian prayer in offered in the United States Senate.

1975: The Commissioner of Indian Affairs authorizes an election for a Constitution for Utu Utu Gwaitu Paiute Tribe of the Benton Paiute Reservation in California. The election is held on November 22, 1975.

September 26

1675: Troops under Virginia Colonel John Washington and Maryland Major Thomas Trueman surround the main base of the Susquehannock Indians. They are there to discover if the Indians are responsible for attacking colonial settlements. Trueman calls out the Susquehannock for a conference under a flag of truce. Five Chiefs come out of their fortified position to talk. They deny being involved in the attacks. Trueman has them led away and killed. Trueman gets off with a minor fine from the Maryland Assembly for this act.

1706: Miskouaki, an Ottawa from Mackinaw, meets with the Marquis de Vaudreuil. He tells him the Miami and the Ottawa have been fighting each other near Detroit.

1760: Because of the recent fighting with British forces, more than 2,000 Cherokees meet in Nequassee (modern Franklin, North Carolina), to hear Chiefs Oconostota and Ostenaco talk of "burying the hatchet." It is agreed the fighting should end. The British still want to fight in order to revenge their losses at Fort Ludoun.

1777: Early this morning, Captain William Foreman, and his company of thirty-four militia leave Wheeling, Virginia to patrol for Indians along Grave Creek. Following the creek, the militia is ambushed by forty Wyandots. Twenty-six of the militia, including Foreman, are killed in the fighting.

1804: Lewis and Clark and the Teton Sioux have a big feast with music.

1825: The Oto and Missouri sign a treaty (7 stat. 277).

1833: In Chicago, George Porter, and the “United Pottawatomies”, Ottawas and Chippewas sign a treaty (7 stat. 431) whereby they cede approximately five millions of acres of land in Illinois and Wisconsin for land west of the Mississippi River.

1840: On the Creek Reservation in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), eventual Principal Chief Pleasant Porter (Talof Harjo), is born.

1842: The Nez Perce missionaries are reorganized.

1844: The first issue of the Cherokee Advocate is published in Tahlaquah, Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). This is the second newspaper published by the Cherokee Nation. It features articles in both Cherokee and English.

1867: Approximately 110 members of the First Cavalry, Twenty-Third Infantry and fifteen Warm Springs Indian (Boise Indian scouts) scouts, fight with approximately seventy-five Paiute, thirty Pit River, and a few Modoc Indians. band of Indians in Infernal Canyon, near Pitt River, south of modern Alturas, California. Lt. Colonel George Crook is commanding the military forces. Chief Si-e-ta leads the combined Indian force. One officer, six soldiers, and one civilian are killed in this three day fight. Eleven soldiers are wounded. Indians losses are twenty killed, twelve wounded and two captured.

1868: Army records indicate that members of the Twenty-Seventh Infantry fight with a band of Indians near Fort Rice, Dakota Territory. One soldier is killed.

1869: General Thomas Duncan, leading men from Troops B, C, F, L, and M, Fifth Cavalry, Troops B, C, and M, Second Cavalry, plus two companies of Pawnee scouts, after a long march, set up camp on Prairie Dog Creek, Kansas. Duncan's advance guard of twenty troopers, led by Lieutenant William Volkmar, attack a group of Indians trying to cut off Major North, and Chief Scout and Guide William "Buffalo Bill" Cody. In the ensuing fight, the cavalry chases the Indians to a village of fifty-six lodges, which is being abandoned in great haste. One Indian is captured, and he identifies the band as Sioux, led by Whistler and Pawnee Killer, survivors of the Summit Springs fight on July 11, 1869. In New Mexico, troopers chase a war party into the San Francisco Mountains. The troopers discover a village, which they destroy. They also kill two Indians.

1874: Colonel R.S. Mackenzie, and Troops A, D, E, F, H, I, and K, Fourth Cavalry, have two skirmishes with Indians before they find five camps of Southern Cheyenne, Lone Wolf's Kiowas, Comanches, and other Indians, in Palo Duro Canyon near Red River, Texas. The soldiers destroy more than 100 lodges, and all of their supplies. 1,400 horses and mules are captured, many are taken to Tule Valley, and killed. One soldier is wounded, and four Indians are killed, according to army reports. Lone Wolf, and 252 Kiowas escape. Many sources report this battle as happening on the 28th, and not the 26th. Corporal Edwin Phoenix, Privates Gregory Mahoney and William McCabe, Company E, and Indian scout Adam Paine will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for their gallantry during the fighting from the 26th to the 28th.

1876: The Black Hills treaty is signed at Red Cloud Agency.

1877: Eighth and Tenth Cavalry Infantry soldiers capture five Indians near “Saragossa, Mexico,” according to army documents.

1877: According to army reports, Major Guido Ilges, a partial company of the Seventh Infantry, and thirty-six volunteers, fight a two-hour battle with the Nez Perce. Ilges eventually retreats to Cow Island, feeling outmanned by the Nez Perce.

1879: After leaving Fortification Creek, Major T.T. Thornburgh, and three cavalry troops, makes camp on Bear Creek, in Colorado, en route to the White River Ute agency. While in camp, several Ute leaders meet Thornburgh, and discuss his activities. The conversations are friendly, and the Indians leave on a positive note.

1879: Captain Albert Morrow, and 197 soldiers, attack Victorio, and his Warm Springs Apache followers, in the Black Range near Ojo Caliente, New Mexico. The fighting lasts until September 30th. Three Apaches are killed. The army reports they recovered sixty horses and mules.

1975: An election on amendments to the Constitution and Bylaws of the Southern Ute Indian tribe of the Southern Ute Reservation in Colorado is held. Of the 268 eligible voters, 92 vote in favor, 55 vote against.

1986: The Nez Perce amend their Constitution and By-Laws.

September 27

1719:Charles Claude du Tisne (Du Tissenet) is in northern Oklahoma near the Arkansas River. He claims the territory for France. Eventually a trading post is built here, near Newkirk.

1749: According to some reports, an agreement regarding peace and the return of prisoners is reached by representatives of the British in Massachusetts and the Norridgewock and Penobscot Indians.

1778: Forces under General John Sullivan destroy the Indian town of Tioga, near modern Athens, Pennsylvania. The village is at the crossroads of several Indian trails, and is considered the southern entrance to the Iroquois lands.

1789: The Fort Harmar-Wyandot Treaty of January 9, 1789 is publicly proclaimed.

1827: According to some historians, today marks the end of the "Winnebago Expedition." After the "Red Bird War", which started on June 29, 1827, Winnebago Chief Red Bird surrenders, in response to the army's threat to destroy the entire tribe. Red Bird is found guilty of murdering several settlers and rivermen; but, he dies in prison before he is sentenced.

1830: The "Dancing Rabbit Creek Treaty" (7 stat. 333) is concluded, whereby, the Choctaws agree to sell lands in Mississippi and to move to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Their new lands are bounded by Fort Smith along the Arkansas River, to the source of the Canadian Fork, to the Red River, to Arkansas Territory. This is the first treaty after the passage of the Indian removal act. Many Chiefs get large parcels of land or money for signing, including Principal Chief Greenwood le Flore. The Choctaws have three years to complete the move. The United States is represented by Generals John Coffee and John Eaton.

1833: The Creeks are in council at Wetumpka, Alabama (north of modern Montgomery). They draft a resolution to Secretary of War Lewis Cass stating that not only have the whites not been removed from their lands, but many more have moved in. State courts have defied Federal laws, and have ruled in favor of the local white intruders.

1836: The Sac and Fox sign a treaty (7 stat. 516).

1850: The "Donation Act" is passed by Congress. This allows settlers to have lands in Washington Territory, regardless of Indian claims.

1861: 200 Apache warriors attack the mining town of Pinto Alto. Captain Martin, and the Arizona volunteer guards, help to fight them off.

1867: Medicine Lodge Creek, is sixty miles south of Fort Larned, in southwestern Kansas. A peace commission has been established here to try to remove the Indians from the area between the Arkansas and the Platte Rivers. The government hoped to establish a reservation for the southern plains Indians, including the Cheyenne, Arapahos, Kiowas, Comanches, and the Apaches of the region. Representing the United States government are Indian Commissioner Nathaniel Taylor, John Henderson, Samuel Tappen, Indian Agent John Sanborn, Indian Agent William Harney, and General Alfred Terry. Some of the Indians who attend the meeting are: Black Kettle, Ten Bears, Gray Beard, Little Raven, Little Robe, Tall Bull, Buffalo Chief, and Roman Nose. Roman Nose arrives in the Indians camp for the meeting planned on October 16th. Eventually, 4000 Indians attend the conference.

1867: According to army records, the fight which started yesterday between the First Cavalry, Twenty-Third Infantry and Boise Indian scouts, and a combined force of Paiute, Pit River and Modoc Indians in Infernal Canyon, near Pitt River, south of modern Alturas, California, continues. Lt. J. Madigan is killed today.

1869: General Duncan’s troops destroy the Indian village and provision found after the fight on Prairie Dog Creek yesterday. The troopers try unsuccessfully to follow the village residents for several days. Surveyor's tools, belonging to Mr. Nelson Buck are discovered in the village. Buck, and eleven others in his surveying party, were killed near this area several days ago.

1879: While proceeding toward the White River Agency, Major T.T. Thornburgh, and his three cavalry troops, meet a White River Agency employee named Eskridge, and several leading Ute Indians. Eskridge has a letter from White River Agent, N.C. Meeker. The letter states the Utes are agitated by Thornburgh's advance, and they wish for him to stop. They suggest that Major Thornburgh, and five soldiers, come into the agency, without the rest of the troops, for a talk. Thornburgh agrees to come to the agency on the 29th with a five-man escort, but he asks for a representative group of Ute Chiefs to visit his camp before the agency meeting. Thornburgh, then continues his march.

1894: The Bureau of Indian Affairs starts putting Indian kids in school with whites.

1917: By Executive Order #2711, President Wilson establishes the Cocopah Indian Reservation south of Yuma, Arizona. The reservation has 1,772 acres.

1967: The Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin lists an official membership roll, as per (81 Stat. 229), Public Law 90-93.

September 28

507: Maya leader in Palenque Kan Xul I dies, according to some sources.

1542: Spanish explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo lands at San Diego Bay, California

1566: Father Pedro Martinez has sailed from Spain in hopes of reaching St. Augustine, Florida. He hopes to convert the Indians to Christianity. Unable to find the Spanish settlement, the priest and several others set out in a small boat to get directions from local Indians. A storm separates them from the mother ship. While still seeking directions to St. Augustine, they encounter a Timucua war party. A fight ensues and all but four of the Spanish are killed.

1759: English Indian Superintendent Edmund Atkin meet with Creeks at the upper village of Tuckabatchee, near modern Tallassee, Alabama. During the meeting, one of the Creeks tries to kill Atkin. Other Creeks stop the attack. Atkin's trip raises suspicion among some of the Creeks, and factionalism has broken out. Atkin survives, and spends a month in the village.

1778: A battle is fought between American forces, and pro-British Indians near the Pennsylvania town of Wyalusing. The Americans, led by Colonel Thomas Hartley, wins the fight.

1836: Two treaties are signed by the Sac and Fox (7 stat.520).

1839: Cherokee women can now legally marry white men.

1841: Aagaunash (Billy Caldwell) is born the son of an Indian mother and a British Officer. He lives with Indians most of his life, and eventually becomes a Potawatomi Chief. He serves as Tecumseh's secretary, and as a liaison to the British until the end of the War of 1812. He fights for the United States against Red Bird, and Black Hawk. He also signs several peace treaties for the Potawatomis. He dies in Council Bluffs, Iowa.

1864: Black Kettle holds a parley with Colorado officials in Denver. Among the participants are: Governor John Evans, Colonel Chivington, Colonel George Shoup, Major E. Wynkoop, Indian Agent S. Whiteley, Cheyenne Chiefs White Antelope and Bull Bear, Arapahoes Neva, Bosse, Heap of Buffalo, and Na-ta-nee; and interpreter John S. Smith.

1866: Soldiers from the First Cavalry fight with a band of Indians on Dunder and Blitzen Creeks in Idaho. The army reports one enlisted man is wounded.

1866: According to army reports, soldiers from the Second Cavalry fight some Indians along La Bonte Creek in Montana. One soldier is wounded in the skirmish.

1867: In the final day of a three day fight, the First Cavalry, Twenty-Third Infantry and Boise Indian scouts, fight with a combined force of Paiute, Pit River and Modoc Indians in Infernal Canyon, near Pitt River, south of modern Alturas, California. A total of one officer, six soldiers, and one civilian are killed. Eleven soldiers are wounded. Indians losses are twenty killed, twelve wounded and two captured.

1869: Army records indicate that members of the Eighth Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near Red Creek, Arizona. Approximately a dozen Indians are killed.

1874: Brevet Major General (Colonel) Ranald Mackenzie, with approximately 600 soldiers of the Fourth Cavalry, leads an attack on the Indians residing in the Palo Duro Canyon, in the Texas panhandle. Four Indians, and no soldiers are reported killed. However, much of the Indians provisions are destroyed, including as many as1400 Indian horses killed by the soldiers. It is a major psychological blow for the few southern plains Indians still not living on reservations. This is called the “Battle of Palo Duro Canyon.” It is the major battle of the Red River War.

1968: An Act (82 Stat. 884) is passed by Congress to “authorize the purchase, sale exchange, mortgage, and long- term leasing of land by the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community.”

1977: The Phoenix Area Director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs authorizes an election for Amendment III to the Constitution for the Papago (Tohono O’odham). The election is held on January 21, 1978.

September 29

1671: According to some sources, a treaty of allegiance is reached between representatives of the Plymouth Plantations and the Wampanoag Indians.

1753: According to some reports an agreement to return captives is reached between representatives of the British in Massachusetts and the Norridgewock Indians.

1769: The expedition to explore the central California coast led by Gaspar de Portolá has camped near modern Monterey. Along the Salina River, members of the expedition encounter a small Indian hunting party.

1782: General Edward Hand has been leading an expedition against the Indians in the area of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. General George Washington cancels the expedition.

1806: Zebulon Pike holds a grand council with the Pawnee. Pike estimates 400 Pawnee warriors attend. He hopes to win their allegiance to the United States, rather than Spain.

1817: The Treaty of the Rapids of the Miami River is signed. Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur, representing the United States Government, sign a peace treaty (7 stat. 160) with the Chippewa, Potawatomi, Wyandot, Shawnee and other tribes. The Indians get annual payments in exchange for land cessions.

1837: The Sioux sign a treaty (7 stat. 538) at Washington, D.C.

1843: A treaty is signed between the Republic of Texas and the Anadarko, Biloxi, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Delaware, Hainai, Kichai, Tawakoni and the Waco.

1865: The Osage sign a treaty (14 stat.687)

1866: Soldiers from the Eighteenth Infantry fight with a band of Indians near Fort Phil Kearny in Dakota Territory. The army reports one enlisted man is killed.

1867: According to army records, members of the Thirty-Seventh Infantry fight with a band of Indians near Fort Garland, Colorado. Two soldiers are killed.

1868: Indians attack a house on Sharp's Creek. They kill the man living there, Mr. Bassett. The house is burned down. Mrs. Bassett, and her two day old baby, are taken captured. Mrs. Bassett is too week to travel, and the Indians "outrage" her, then leave her, and her baby, to die on the prairie.

1869: After pursuing a band of Indians for a week, troops from Fort Bayard, in southwestern New Mexico, find their village. The troopers destroy the village, killing three, and wounding three Indians. One soldier is wounded in the fight.

1872: Colonel R.S. Mackenzie, and Troops A, D, F, I, and L, Fourth Cavalry, and some Tonkawa scouts are near the North Fork of the Red River, near modern Lefors, Texas, when they discover a Comanche camp of 200 lodges. Mackenzie attacks, and destroys most of the encampment. According to government reports, twenty-three Indians are killed, approximately 125 warriors are captured. One soldier is killed, and three are wounded. Many horses and mules are seized by the army. For "gallantry in action," Private Edward Branagan, Farrier David Larkin, Sergeant William Foster, and First Sergeant William McNamara, Private William Rankin, Company F, Corporal Henry McMasters, Company A, Corporal William O'Neill, Company I, Blacksmith James Pratt, Company I, and Sergeant William Wilson will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. This is Wilson's second Medal of Honor. This will become known as the “Battle of the North Fork of the Red River” Some sources report this to be the Kotsoteka Comanche village of Mow-way.

1872: After demanding their removal from prison, Lone Wolf meets with Satanta, and Big Tree, in Saint Louis. They discuss the Kiowa's stand when Lone Wolf goes to Washington, D.C. to discuss treaty matters. After their meeting, Satanta, and Big Tree return to prison in Texas.

1873: Indians fight with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry, the Twenty-Third Infantry and some Indian scouts at Sierra Ancha, Arizona, according to army documents. Two Indians are killed, and four are captured

1877: Lieutenant John Bullis, and a small force from the Twenty-Fourth Infantry, attack a group of Lipan Indians in a camp four miles from Saragossa, Mexico. The army captures five women and children, twelve horses, and two mules. The camp, and its' contents is destroyed.

1879: After passing the Milk River, in Colorado, Major Thomas T. Thornburgh splits his command of three troops of cavalry. One troop continues down the road to the White River Agency with the expedition's wagons. Thornburgh, and his two remaining troops, follow a different route, slightly to the left of road. After crossing a high ridge, Thornburgh encounters a large group of Ute Indians. According to his report, he attempts to communicate with the Utes, but they open fire. Being out numbered, Thornburgh retreats back toward the troops with the wagons. Skirmishes take place while Thornburgh is retreating toward the wagons, which are now on the Milk River. Within sight of the wagons, Thornburgh is shot and killed. The wagons are formed into a barricade, and the soldiers engage in a battle with the Utes. The Utes set the grass on fire, and many of the wagons catch fire. Successful efforts to put out the fire, lead to the death of several soldiers. The battle lasted from 3pm until well after dark, with many wounded, and killed, on both sides. Couriers slip out of the barricade after dark, to seek reinforcements. The fighting continues until October 5, 1879. According to army records, nine enlisted men, three civilians and thirty-seven Indians are killed in the fighting. Two officers, forty-three soldiers and three civilians are wounded. Captain Francis S. Dodge, Troop D, Ninth Cavalry, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for leading a force of forty men who came to the relief of the besieged soldiers. For retrieving ammunition for the soldiers while surrounded on three sides and under point-blank fire, Sergeant Edward P. Grimes is also awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. Sergeant John Lawton, Company D, will also get the Medal of Honor for "coolness and steadiness under fire; volunteered to accompany a small detachment on a very dangerous mission." First Sergeant Jacob Widmer, Sergeant John Merrill, Corporals George Moquin and Edward Murphy, blacksmith Wilhelm Philipsen, and Corporal Hampton Roach will also win the Medal for gallantry.

1973: The House Interior Committee votes to approve a bill which reestablishes federal recognition of the Menominees Indians.

1983: The Area Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs ratifies an amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Suquamish Indian Tribe of the Port Madison Reservation in the State of Washington.

1984: An amendment to the Constitution of the Comanche Indian Tribe is enacted. Every: (through the 30th) Taos Pueblo festival.

September 30

1730: In British Court in London, seven Cherokee leaders sign the "Articles of Agreement" with the Lords Commissioners. It is a formal alliance covering allegiance, peace and the return of captives.

1809: William Henry Harrison, representing the United States, and the Delaware, Miami, Potawatomi and Eel River Indians, sign a treaty (7 stat. 113) at Fort Wayne. Three million acres in Indiana and Illinois are traded for larger annuities, and $5,200 in supplies.

1825: The Pawnee sign a treaty (7 stat. 279) at Fort Atkinson.

1850: Congress authorizes efforts to get treaties with the Indians of California.

1854: The Chippewa sign a treaty at La Pointe, Wisconsin (10 stat.L.1109) .

1865: According to a report dated today, the following number of Indians were present at the Fort Sumner, New Mexico reservation in September: 402 Apache, 7,318 Navajo.

1872: Indians skirmish with a group of soldiers from the First Cavalry on Squaw Peak in Arizona, according to official army records. Seventeen Indians are killed, and one is captured. Also in Arizona, Company F of the Fifth Cavalry fights with some Indians near Camp Crittenden. Four soldiers are killed.

1877: Today through October 5th, according to army reports, elements of Colonel Nelson Miles' Second Cavalry, capture 800 Nez Perce horses According to army documents, Captain Owen Hale, Lt. J.W. Biddle, twenty-two soldiers and seventeen Indians are killed. Captain Myles Moylan, Captain E.S. Godfrey, Lt. G.W. Baird, Lt. Henry Romeyn, thirty-eight soldiers, eight civilians and forty Nez Perce are wounded. Almost 20% of the soldiers are wounded or killed during the fighting at Bear Paw Mountain, near modern Havre, Montana. The army will issue Congressional Medals of Honor to the following soldiers during this campaign: First Lieutenant George W. Baird, Fifth Infantry, for "distinguished gallantry in action"; First Lieutenant Mason Carter, Fifth Infantry, for leading a charge "under a galling fire"; Second Lieutenant Oscar Long, Fifth Infantry, for taking over command of a troop of cavalry when their officers were killed; Second Lieutenant Edward McClernand, Second Cavalry, for using "skill and boldness when attacking a band of hostiles"; Captain Edward S. Godfrey, Seventh Cavalry, for leading his men while severely wounded; Captain Myles Moylan, for gallantry leadership until he is severely wounded; First Sergeant Henry Hogan, Company G, Fifth Infantry, for carrying severely wounded Lieutenant Henry Romeyn out of the line of fire (this is Hogan's second award, see October 21, 1876); First Lieutenant Henry Romeyn, Fifth Infantry for vigorously prosecuting the fight; Major (and surgeon) Henry Tilton for rescuing wounded men.

1879: Sixth and Ninth Cavalry soldiers and some Indian scouts fight a group of Indians near Ojo Caliente in the Black Range, New Mexico. According to army documents, two scouts and three Indians are killed. The fighting started on September 26th.

1936: Harold Ickes, Secretary of the Interior, authorizes an election for a proposed Constitution and Bylaws of the Hopi Tribe. The election is held on October 24, 1936.

1973: Inuit artist and writer Peter Pitseolak dies in Cape Dorset, Northwest Territories, Canada. Using his artistic and photographic talents, he documents much of the traditional ways of life of his people.

 

Dates reprinted with permission by Phil Konstantin: http://americanindian.net/index.html

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